TentsThe general(common) demands to any tents is a small weight, a waterproof, good thermal insulation, a windproof, speed of the equipment(installation) and disassembly, comfort, durability, convenience of a transferring in a backpack, security from penetration of midges.
The industry does not satisfy various demand of tourists and climbers for tents, therefore the majority of designs - self-made.
For manufacturing tent first of all it is necessary to make the technical project, to define(determine) the purpose of its(her) future utilization. Designs of tents are various - from the idle time, facilitated, for easy travel, up to complex(difficult) framed. The size of a floor of tent is defined(determined) by the area necessary for one person. Between comfort and weight of tent it is possible to consider(count) as the comprehensible compromise the size of a floor on one person approximately 45-50 h 200 see the Optimum variant of the size of a floor of three-four-seater tent - 135-150 h 200 sm and 180-200 h 200 see In many-placed tent to place if necessary one more person lighter.
The height of tent defines(determines) its(her) comfort and parusnost. The above the tent, the is better its(her) comfort, but more parusnost. At height of 90 sm in tent it is possible to sit only, at 130 sm - to be kneeling, at 160 sm - to stand having incurvated. The height under the skate 140-150 see is compromise
Weight of tent counting upon one person - very important parameter. Application of kapron tissues with weight no more than 150 г/м2 and high durability enables to receive weight less than 1 kg counting upon one person for beskarkasnyh tents.
To winter and mountain hikes often apply double tents with a backlash of 3-5 sm between walls. They, naturally, are warmer unary, but not less than in 1,5 times is more serious, even if the inner tent is produced(made) from more thin and light(mild) tissue.
Tents can be classified:
* on a season - on winter and years(summer);
* on conditions of travel - for a wood zone (taiga), for open-spaces (tundra, steppes) and for mountains;
* on basic system - beskarkasnye, established(installed) on two racks and side extensions; established(installed) on one central leg and extensions; polukarkasnye in which the form of pepper section is defined(determined) by rigid elements, and longitudinal - due to face extensions; framed in which all configuration of tent is provided with a tension on a skeleton;
On thermal insulation - unary and double;
In the geometrical form of a crest(fornix) - dvuskatnye, treh-, chetyreh-, shestiskatnye, tent (including "plagues"), arch (type "hangar"), many-sided (eight, ten sides).
Fig. 20. The General appearance of some the tents widespread among tourists of the former Union.
1. dvuskatnaja. 2. "Pamirka". 3. trehskatnaja. 4. chetyrehskatnaja. 5. pjatiskatnaja. 6.-heptahedral tent. 7. An octahedral tent with the square basis. 8. "Furgonnaja". 9. "JUrta" with a umbellate skeleton. 10. Raznoskatnaja. 11. Double kosushka. 12. "Arctic regions". 13. "Cabriolet".
In hikes of the day off, as well as in the pedestrian and water hikes, it is possible to consider(count) as the basic type of tent dvuskatnye tents in the form of "small house". As a material for them the raincoat-tent a canvas, prorezinennyj percale (a floor and a roof from a water-repellent tissue), kalandrirovannyj Capronum serves. The size of a floor - 1,3-1,5 h 1,8-2 m. tents of such type Available on sale weigh 4-5 kg, as are made mainly from serious (and besides not water-repellent) tissues. Much light(much more mild) will be tent from parachute Capronum complete with a polyethylene cape.
Demands to years(summer) tents for a wood zone are most simple. The forest itself protects from a wind and the sun, in difference of daily temperatures, almost always probably to stretch(drag out) tent between trees itself there is less. In a forest and a taiga to be covered from a bad weather in the summer is possible under a chunk of a tissue or Membranula(film) - an awning, and from midges to shelter gauze flat.
In the winter of tent in a wood zone it is good to warm the second inner layer, in them ovens for heating and cookings can be established(installed).
Tents for travel on steppe and tundra should resist to strong winds, protect from a rain, heat, the sun and a cold. In the winter in bezlesnyh districts it is necessary to cook food on kerosene stoves is more often.
Tents for mountain travel should provide protection against a rain, a snow, a wind and a cold, convenience of the equipment(installation) during a bad weather, an opportunity of cooking in inclement weather. In mountains besides sometimes it is difficultly good to stretch(drag out) tent because of the small area for the equipment(installation) of roughnesses.
Some qualities of tents (a windproof and obitaemost, the specific charge of a material, convenience of the equipment(installation), etc.) depend on their form. The survey of a general view of tents, basically self-made, the most widespread at our tourists, is presented(introduced) on fig. 20.
It is possible to carry to the most simple tents-shelters bivachnyj a bag, or the tent-bag (tent Zdarskogo) providing yкрытие, rest(tour) or a lodging for the night in sedentary or lying position. Such tent is made of a light(mild) water-proof tissue (for example, prorezinennogo Capronum). On the deaf(indistinct) extremity(end) of a bag the ventilating valve is done(made). The sizes of a bag approximately 160 h 200 sm, weight - up to 1,5 kg. Into dry weather in a bag get legs(foots) forward, leaving a head opened(open). In inclement weather a bag put on a head so that the valve was against the face. For warming it is possible to put inside of a bag teploizolirujushchy a cover.
The greatest diffusion at tourists for years(summer) hikes have received, as it was already mentioned, dvuskatnye tents-small houses (fig. 21): "pamirki", "poludatki", "hunting", "serebrjanki", etc. They have simple and rational "without waste" open, good obitaemost, are simple in the equipment(installation).
Fig. 21. dvuskatnaja tent, a general appearance;, open details; a double seam. 1. The skate. 2. A clivus. 3. A wing. 4. A vertical wall. 5. Alcoholization of delays. 6. A floor. 7. A rack and a zipper. 8. Delays.
"Pamirka" - dvuskatnaja one-layer beskarkasnaja tent with vosemju the delays, established(installed) on two racks (it is desirable, non-disposable). The roof se is made(produced) from one-layer prorezinennogo perkalja with an aluminium covering or from kalandrirovannogo Capronum. A floor - from same, but a two-layer material, side and face walls - from neprorezinennogo perkalja or nekalandrirovannogo Capronum that provides ventilation. An input(entrance) - from two дверок-panels clasped(buttoned) on klevanty. In tent three persons are placed. Non-disposable racks can be made of 10-15 mm of duralumin tubes in diameter and 40-50 see Pegs can be made by length of light(mild) duralumin corners, plastic, wire probes.
The tent is intended basically for years(summer) hikes, for winter and mountain hikes she insufficiently warm, has no airproof input(entrance) on the inner side of a roof the condensate gathers. At a snowfall clivuses sag under gravity of a snow, reducing inner space of tent.
Are less known odnoskatnye tents. Kroit them as it is simple, in a forest they are very convenient, but resist to winds is worse.
Simple odnoskatnaja the tent with the rectangular basis can be made(produced) of different materials (fig. 22).
Fig. 22. odnoskatnaja tent 1. A clivus. 2. A side wall. 3. A wing. 4. Vertikalnaja a wall. 5. Alcoholization of delays. 6. A floor. 7. Stoika and a zipper. 8. Delays.
One of variants: a clivus from ordinary, and walls from kalandrirovannogo Capronum. For durability a clivus stitch on perimeter and diagonals a kapron tape. For protection against a rain use a polyethylene awning so that before an input(entrance) the tambour for things was formed. If to make a clivus also from kalandrirovannogo Capronum it is possible to do without an awning. The input(entrance) has a fastener - "repejnuju" or on a lightning.
On 6 person the sizes of a floor 2 h 3 m, height of a forward wall of 1,2 m. and back 0,5-0,6 m. Gross weight of tent - about 2,6 kg (palatka-1,2 kg, racks and pegs - 0,5 kg, an awning - 0,9 kg) are recommended.
For a roof and bottoms(funduses) use a water-proof tissue, and for a forward wall - a kapron grid 1 (fig. 23). In polumetre from it(her) sew polog from two overlapping each other polovinok (parachute Capronum, sitets), the second can tie with tapes to walls of tent, adjusting(regulating) dostupsvezhego air. To cold time polog falls. The skeleton gathers inside of tent and consists of a vertical rack, the skate and the L-shaped back rack. The forward pile can be made also L-shaped. For a modular skeleton duralumin tubes 10-16 h 1 mm in length up to 60 see All 10 tubes will approach(suit) is necessary. To a bottom(fundus) of tent sew kapron loops into which insert pegs. The awning is not necessary.
Fig. 23. trehskatnaja tent 1. A kapron grid. 2. Print polog. 3. The Zipper. 4. A skeleton.
Sleep in tent the face to an input(entrance). The given sizes are resulted(brought) for housing three-four person. Weight of Tent about 4 kg.
Unary tents have one essential disadvantage: at waterproof clivuses face and side walls of tent even if they are made of an air-permeable material, moisten. On inner concerning cold surfaces of clivuses the condensate which is dropping out of wet warm air is formed. The more difference of temperatures of external and inner air, the is more formed a condensate. Therefore in unary tents it is desirable to hold whenever possible opened(open) cusps of doors.
The air interlayer of double tent (fig. 24), first of all on a roof, will give effect of thermal insulation owing to what on its(her) inner surface there is no any more such temperature drop as in unary tent. The effect of an aeration of most this air interlayer is framed by utilization of movement of an outside air - a weak wind (fig. 24) or a natural convection with gradual release of the upper heated part of this air (fig. 24).
Therefore the most perfect(absolute) tents do(make) double. The external tent is sewed from a water-proof tissue, inner - from a light(mild) tissue.
If the roof of tent soaks through, the awning - preferably from a lung nekalandrirovannogo Capronum or from a polyethylene film which is better for pulling so that between it(him) is in addition necessary and a roof of tent was a backlash for the best aeration. The awning should block all tent with a stock. Durability of an awning puts on trial at a wind.
Fig. 24. Schemes(plans) of an aeration of two-layer tents or tents with an awning
The tent from kapron tissues needs to be sewed kapron nitkami, extensions it is necessary to sew to intensifying kapron tapes of armature. From Capronum it is necessary to a detail of tents oplavljat on a contour that regional seams did not creep away.
In districts with a warm dry climate the big awning 3 h 2,5 m or 4 h 3 m can become shelter for six person. Thus it is possible to manage and tent (fig. 5). The awning, as well as tent, should have 8 delays. Places of alcoholization of delays amplify. The awning can be, as well as tent, dvuskatnyj and odnoskatnyj (with an inclination in one side) at height of the upper edge up to 2 m.
However tents-small houses at their all simplicity and small weight are inconvenient in the autumn or in the winter at low temperatures. In this pore greater(big) tents of other type on 9-12 the person where all group can be located is better approach(suit).
In the table resulted(brought) below, are compared odno-, dvu-, treh-and chetyrehskatnye tents (fig. 25).
Pyramidal trehskatnye tents lighter odnoskatnyh and dvuskatnyh, demand less material, resist to winds is better, is easier in the equipment(installation), but it is more complex(difficult) in manufacturing.
Capacity of tent at identical length (it is ordinary 2) is defined(determined) by its(her) width. For normal rest(tour) the width of the floor falling one person, should make nearby 50 see the Charge of a tissue and the cost bound to it(this) and weight of tent, naturally, depend from se the sizes and a design.
The tent with an awning from well picked up material only slightly is more serious, but protects from a rain, a cold, the sun more reliably. The awning can be used and separately, without tent.
Sometimes, in a bad weather, in tent it is necessary to spend appreciable time. Therefore it is important, that in her it was possible to sit (a zone of comfort should have height not less than 85-90 sm).
Fig. 25. Schemes(plans) odno-, dvuh-, treh-m chetyrehskatnyh tents.
For protection against midges and improvement of ventilation on an input(entrance) hang polog from a gauze or a frequent tulle.
On tents there are following materials more often:
Cloth tent (260 г/м2);
Cover(Cloak) tissue (200 г/м2);
Percale (60-100 г/м2);
Capronum (40-50 г/м2);
Waterproof materials - prorezinennyj duplicated percale (“ a tissue 500 ”, 250 г/м2);
kalandrirovannyj Capronum (100 г/м2).
For awnings use also a polyethylene film (50-100 г/м2),
trehskatnye tents are most economical under the charge of a tissue: on two-four-seater tent it is required on the average on 2 м2 to a tissue less, than on dvuskatnuju (and in view of an awning - on 5 м2); the weight turns out accordingly on 10-20 % less. The zone of comfort in trehskatnoj to tent can be enlarged, having added 10-20 sm on height.
Single trehskatnaja tent in width of 80 sm (the back wall of 50 60 sm), sshitaja from perkalja, weighs together with delays of 0,6-0,8 kg.
For hikes in wood places the tent approaches(suits) odnoskatnaja. She is simple in manufacturing, has a greater(big) zone of comfort and the area of an input(entrance). If to delay a forward wall, in tent it can be placed two-rub(-three) more persons.
The tent is comprehensible to mountain travel with a width on an input(entrance) of 1,4-1,5 m. If to sleep a head to an input(entrance) it is possible to narrow a back wall up to 1,2 m that will reduce weight and parusnost tents trehskatnaja. For the tents used in mountains, it is better to do(make) a roof waterproof as awnings here are inconvenient - enlarge weight, parusnost, quantity(amount) of pegs for the extension(spreading device), complicate the equipment(installation) at a strong wind. In the top of tent sew a ventilating sleeve in diameter 10-15 see In comparison with "pamirkoj" such tent is lighter, is easier in the equipment(installation) and has one rack.
That in cold weather the condensate on a roof was not formed, under it(her) suspend a gauze which easily to exsiccate separately from tent.
At strong winds it is better to apply L-образныс racks which interfere prodavlivaniju stenok a side wind, do(make) by more free an input(entrance).
trehskatnuju chamber with an awning it is possible to prefer for open-spaces (tundra, steppe). The awning thus should be lowered(omitted) up to land and to close in front and behind.
dvuskatnyj the awning up to land is convenient for odnoskatnyh and dvuskatnyh tents. However thus the weight, an installation time, quantity(amount) krepjashchih pegs is enlarged parusnost.
In table 1 below weight data are resulted(brought) for a cover(cloak) tissue: dense percale weighs twice less, Capronum - four times. A tent cloth and prorezinennyj duplicated percale weigh on 30 % more than a cover(cloak) tissue, and kalandrirovannyj Capronum (different density) does not exceed se on weight. (in a denominator of the table the charge of a tissue in view of an awning) is resulted(brought).
Well warmly two-layer tent saves. The external tent fastens to inner by means of outsets or elastics with hooks. A backlash between external and inner tents of 50-80 mm that provides air teploizoljatsionnuju an interlayer. Both tents it is possible to use separately.
Tents are stitched by kapron tapes of intensifying on a diagonal of a clivus. Loops of extensions krepjat to angles and the centers of clivuses, a floor, the skates-roofs. Two tubusnyh an input(entrance) allow to put tents closely an input(entrance) to an input(entrance) or with tambour. Tambour krepjat by means of sewn through 15-20 sm to tent of buttons. Depth of tambour of the Wall of 1-1,5 m. - with a stock on podvoroty (20-30 sm) which press things. Clivuses of external tent are better for making from kalandrirovannogo Capronum (it is possible from serebrjanki or boloni), walls and end faces - of dense Capronum. Inner tent sew from lighter(more mild) (parachute) Capronum or perkalja.
Weight of the completed tent (with tambours, non-disposable racks, polyethylene under tent and an awning above a roof) about 4 kg.
Fig. 26. Tent “ Taiga “.
Tent “ Taiga “. It is intended for hikes in woody districts (fig. 26). She differs From traditional "small houses" asimmetrichnostju clivuses - the skate of a roof is displaced to one side. It raises(increases) comfort of tent: to sit it is possible in higher part, to place there an oven, fire wood. All area under a flat clivus - a bedroom.
Sagging of clivuses, especially at strong snowfalls, it is possible to reduce by means of the additional delays sewn to the centers of clivuses. An input(entrance) do(make) in the form of a radiographic cone or on a zipper. "Lightning" clasp(button) from top to down. From the inside on all length of "lightning" sew materchatuju a stria which reduces penetration of cold air a little.
Hole of a pipe sheathe glass cloth or insert a plate of a strong foil. Seams, especially on lines of the maximal tension, it is good to stitch a kapron tape (stropoj).
The tent can be made(produced) of a thin canvas, a tent tissue or a tissue "safari". Walls and can be executed end faces and from "boloni". At the equipment(installation) of tent it is desirable to use trees and scrubs, into a light forest a long clivus to turn to a wind, and a low wall to protect snow shaft or snow bricks. Under the skate inside of tent it is possible to pull a cord and to dry on him clothes, toes(socks), footwear.