The installation and the equipment of tentsThe platform for the equipment(installation) of tent should be horizontal. As a last resort heads laying should be above legs(foots). In mountains a platform it is possible to level, stacking flat stones.
The chosen place clear of stones, branches, trample down a snow in the winter or clear of it(him), depending on its(his) depth and density. At a wind tent put so that the wind blew in a back wall. The input(entrance) is desirable for focusing on the open place - a forest edge, the river, lake - it is better on the east or on the south. Tents which use in simple and years(summer) hikes more often, remind small houses under the form. Such dvuskatnye tents tourists name "pamirkami", "poludatkami", "serebrjankami", "hunting" depending on a material, from which they sshity, and from some features of a design. On sale they can have most razny names, it is not enough about what speaking. The quantity(amount) of berths in trading passports of tents also is defined(determined) any way. It is necessary therefore the nobility, that on the "average" person it is necessary about 50 sm of width of tent. Hence, if the sizes of a floor of tent - 150 h 200 sm, are dwellings can "accept" a three.
However the tent-small houses at their all simplicity and even small weight (it is desirable to have tent in weight no more than 1 kg counting upon one person, on sale such does not happen almost) are inconvenient in the autumn and in the winter at rains and low temperatures. At this time it is desirable to use greater(big) tents on 10-15 the person in which all group can range.
Thus as it is necessary to establish(install) only one tent, works on a camp are reduced. In such tent is warmer, it is possible to warm it(her) an oven. Besides the weight of tent falling its(her) one inhabitant noticeably decreases, if, say, for group at 9-10 the person instead of 3 "small houses" take one "tent".
About a design of such tents it is told in the section, devoted to equipment.
Tent-small house normally establish(install) together, ("tent", "plagues") it is convenient to establish(install) more complex(difficult) tents three together-four together. I begin with a raising of a roof. It(her) nasazhivajut on the basic racks or I stretch(I drag out) (depending on a design of tent) and fix. Then I pull angle and side delays. It is good to use for this purpose close costing(standing) trees, especially for a strained interpretation of the skate of tent-small house. Delays can be fixed on pegs, circular stones, trees. It is better to drive in pegs under an angle to land and it is perpendicular to the extension(spreading device).
If in rainy weather water can get under tent, it is possible to dig out a flute collecting water under clivuses. The tent needs to be pulled, especially during a rain: with carried water will be better to flow down and she will not proceed.
Tents-small houses can be put, not fixing it is preliminary hollow. Before the equipment(installation) the tent is desirable for clasping(buttoning), differently it(she) can be drawn at width or in height. At natjagivanii konkovyh the delays fixed on racks that it is desirable to do(make) first of all, it is necessary to make so that the skate of tent, racks and pegs of alcoholization of delays were on one straight line. The direction of angle delays on wings of tent should not be on one line with edge of a side clivus, and go on a diagonal. If there is no hazard of that the floor can be shifted, it(he) can be stretched(dragged out) correctly only, not fixing pegs.
If the roof does not screw up the face cords(crimps), walls do not sag, the floor is not raised, the tent is put correctly.
For tents it is desirable to have pegs metal (a metal rod, a duralumin corner) or plastic, constantly used complete with tent. If still(even) to make(produce) and racks it will not be necessary to waste time on each parking on manufacturing of pegs and racks. Certainly, in any way it is impossible to mince for these purposes alive derevtsa, branches or scrubs. As racks for tents duralumin tubes in diameter of 10-15 mm can serve. On one rack two are necessary, and better three pieces of a tube. Into one of tubes from both sides hammer in wooden fuses which two other tubes put on. In the disassembled kind these six tubes in length can be transferred(carried) of 40-45 (60-65) sm together with tent. In mountains instead of pegs normally apply stones, and racks replace bound ledorubami. In the winter instead of pegs and racks it is possible to apply skis and ski a stick. In water hikes as racks frequently use paddles.
In days of old (not too for a long time, about 15-20 years ago) when tourists and any another ljuda was in forests much less, than now, it was possible to afford and in the populated regions to make a drawsheet under tent from lapnika coniferous trees. It turned out softly, chilly, warmly, especially in the winter. In air hung odor of needles. But now, when avalanches having a rest, mushroom pickers, tourists (especially near conurbations) even at keeping all rules of nature preservation (that, by the way, never happens!) only one presence cause to a forest an appreciable loss, treading soil to dare to break off coniferous trees for the sake of only one lodgings for the night it is inadmissible.
What to lay under tents? Put on cleared from knots kameshek, shishek land a polyethylene film. Lay penopolietilenovye (penoplastovye, porolonovye) sleeping pads or mats. Now it is possible to spread out(decompose) sleeping bags. It is possible to manage bajkovym or woolen blankets in the summer.
If the rain or a snow, tent if she we soak through gathers; it is necessary to cover a cape, having adhered it(her) to delays of tent or fix linen clothespins. It is possible to use also special an awning from a light(mild) tissue or a polyethylene film, pulled above tent (with a backlash between an awning and a roof) on own delays.
For tent tents if they are made(produced) not from kalandrirovannogo Capronum, and from a canvas or another promokaemogo a material, also it is good to have an awning in spite of the fact that clivuses of such tents it is had under a greater(big) angle to land and the snow or water easily roll down(slide) with it(him) the Awning for tent tent it is possible sshit from the light(mild) parachute Capronum repeating under the form a tent without bottom vertical stenok the Awning has the delays, they can be adhered to rings, palkam an ooze to skis to which delays of tent fasten. If the awning is good for pulling, he will protect tent from a rain, even if a tissue water-permeable. The awning also is useful in the winter even at absence of deposits as the tent with an awning is frosted over less (less difference between temperature of air outside and inside of tent). If the snow, that falls, freezing on tent he considerably makes heavier it(her), and from an awning he easily shakes off. Will clear in a hike tent of an external icing and inner hoarfrost - the frozen condensate which have penetrated a cloth of tent, very difficultly and probably only at long drying that demands a lot of time and more often it is impossible (there is no fuel for the big fire). It is possible to replace an external awning inner tent, it is desirable also light(mild) parachute Capronum. The inner tent fastens (becomes attached) from within to the basic by means of specially sewn short tapes. Between the basic and inner tent always there is a backlash. In addition such double tent is warmer unary.
Greater(Big) tent tents, as a rule, have no floor. In it(this) eats the advantages about which it is already told. The equipment(installation) of such tents is not difficult, but demands, as any business, the certain(specific) skill. Such tent is kept central kolom (or a rack) by length 190-200 sm or pair of skis of the same length (two skis clamp two clamps that such rack both above leaned(based), and below on caudal end faces of skis). Delays krepjat it is ordinary so that the area from within tents approached the form of a circle if there is no intention to extend it(her) in an oval that sometimes more conveniently for housing people. At utilization of many-placed sleeping bags on each participant it is necessary approximately 0,4 h 2 m of a floor.
Platform under tent normally trample down skis, not taking out backpacks. For bracing tent use trees, skis, a stick. In a taiga in distant districts under tent it is possible to lay a layer lapnika. Floors (podvoroty) tents it is possible to fall asleep a snow.
The equipment(installation) of tent begin that on central kol put on an apex of tent. The tourist keeping kol, appears inside of tent and commands its(her) extension(spreading device) as the form which is accepted by tent is well visible to him. The vertical part of walls of tent has has normally reserved on length or special podvoroty which it is possible to press from within tents sleeping bags, backpacks and other, specially not fixing. Available loops enable to fix, however, tent more precisely. Tent many-placed tents (factory or self-made) are generally established(installed) depending on a design. At presence of trees of a delay adhere to them. On bezlesnyh parking of a delay adhere to skis or to ski palkam.
It is possible to warm greater(big) tent in the winter with a special oven - substitution or floor-stand which weight together with a pipe normally does not exceed 1 kg. Fuel for such oven serve small poleshki as length about 10 sm pinned from dry churbachkov. Such ovens consume a few(a little;little bit) fire wood. Small sushiny continuous burning suffices at 10-12 o'clock. However, thus it is necessary also a fire for cooking. If some(a little;a little bit) to change a design of an oven and to make its(her) floor-stand, costing(standing) on cleaned(removed) legs(pinches), to enlarge its(her) volume and pre-a little (to see a hole for a bucket, on her it is possible and to cook food. Weight of such oven with a pipe - about 3 kg. It already another, as they say, a class as the economy on time bivachnyh works and their labour input becomes very essential. Any tiresome "timber cuttings(harvesting operations)" it is not necessary. One small sushinka will provide with heat for all night and will allow to make a supper and a breakfast. Disappears also necessity in kostrovom a set - rogulkah or taganah, cables, hooks, etc. In an hour after a stopping the group can already have a rest in tent. At such warm lodging for the night when in the morning of persons on duty coffee submit to bed ” “, people have a rest more full and more comfortably. Besides with such oven it is not necessary to search longly for a site of a forest with an abundance of a dead wood. It is enough to find of one sushinku in a suitable place for a lodging for the night - also it is possible to break a camp and thus, fuel is spared, the forest is saved up. Skilled tourists for a long time have noticed, that in hikes with fires(shives), especially in the winter, people get tired not on transitions at movement natural to the person, and during "vanity" bivachnyh works and most of all - in winter "timber cuttings(harvesting operations)" when it is necessary to bring down, undress and drag on a deep snow thick lesiny more. It is good, if a hike short 2-3 days, and the greater(big) weariness will not have time to collect. On longer routes when after running day it is necessary to bring down and undress some more hours a forest, rolling in a snow, kostrovaja romanticism any more does not bring pleasure. In these conditions not so trained tourists dream only of reaching a sleeping bag. And in distant long hikes where especially it is a lot of difficulties and loads, even the trained command(team) with pleasure will refuse a fire if there is an economical oven which will give heat, nutrition and a cosiness.
In tents in which you suited kitchen(cuisine) and a dining room - with an oven kerosene stoves or a gas tile, the linen floor is absolutely not necessary. The opinion of many tourists is those. A floor He will bring here only inconveniences always will be dirty, wet, prozhzhennym. How without a floor? Simply lay on land or the drowned snow the same polyethylene film, penopolietilenovye sleeping pads and penoplastovye mats, but only on, sleeping bags. Other area is free from a covering. You are not afraid to tear, soil, wet or burn a floor. In such tent is not colder, than at presence of a floor, to live in her more conveniently, and she weighs less.
The equipment of tents
The life in tent demands the certain(specific) skills, knowledge, the order, and in tent all subjects and things should take the certain(specific) place during all time of a hike.
On spread Membranula(film) put penopolietilenovye (penoplastovye, etc.) sleeping pads or mats, sleeping bags lay on sleeping pads, in headboards - soft things. Fine subjects - - put compasses, glasses(spots), toilet accessories(belongings) in pockets of tent, soft backpacks can be placed under sleeping bags in legs(foots). Stankovye backpacks leave covered by Membranula(film) outside of tent or under an awning.
Footwear put at an input(entrance) in tent under a floor in the summer, utensils leave at a fire or in any other convenient and appreciable place.
Fig. 3. Pendant fixtures for tent paraffinic, for candles
1. Caps(covers) of a box - a reflection shield. 2. Chains. 3. An asbestos match on a wire skeleton. 4. Paraffin wax. 5. A box. 6. A suppository.
For illumination(coverage) in tent strengthen electric or other lantern ("laterna", suppositories) (fig. 3). As fuel for the fixture paraffin wax, a transformer oil can serve. Paraffin wax and a stearine are convenient in transportation. The match for the fixture can be made(produced) of an asbestos tape thickness in 1-2 and width 15-20 mm. Height of a flame adjust(regulate) position of the match kept by a wire stirrup-skeleton, and also greater(big) or smaller immersing of a match in paraffin wax. In a pendant candlestick it is possible to fix and a suppository which should be moved upwards in process of combustion.
To portable(transportable) illumination(coverage) apply electric lanterns. For winter hikes it is better to use electrodynamic lanterns which are not afraid of low temperatures. Lanterns with batarejkami need to be preserved against freezing in the winter.
On years(summer) travel on лесисто-taiga district to an input(entrance) of tent it is desirable to sew polog from a gauze or a kapron grid, having processed its(his) any insectifuge - a liquid which is frightening off midges.
In tents with the waterproof top, used without an awning, it is desirable to suspend under clivuses demountable gauze polog in order to prevent education in them of a condensate. To dry a chunk of a gauze much lighter, than tent as a whole.
The oven in tent demands a special place: pendant - a reliable leg in the form of central kola in tent tent or podkonkovogo a cable in dvuskatnoj to tent; floor-stand - a leg for legs(pinches). A stock of fire wood for an oven put(fold) in tent, the input(entrance) is ordinary near. To dry things it is possible on the tense cord in dvuskatnoj for tent or having fixed hooks and hangers on central kolu - in tent.
In winter hikes, as though complete with tent, the group on duty footwear which any participant could put on is necessary. Normally take one pair a valenok, however it is better to replace them lighter(more mild) "chunjami", sshitymi from double woolen batting or a synthetic winterizer and covered by a nursery oilcloth and "obutymi" in the galoshes sewn to them. On group it is enough to take one pair chunej and as reserve warm footwear.
Electric economical lantern
Fig. 4. The scheme(plan) of an economical electric lantern
R1 R2 R4 R5, R6 - resistors of type MLT 0,125; R3 - the resistor of type СП4-1; T1; T2 - transistors of type КТ-315, КТ-340 or КТ-306; TZ - the transistor of type КТ-501, KT-814, КТ-816.
The applied scheme(plan) (fig. 4) enlarges service life of a battery in some times. It(she) can be mounted in the case of any lantern of industrial(untrimmed) manufacturing. A basis of the scheme(plan) - the symmetric multivibrator. Its(his) impulses open and close transistor TZ in which sewer the bulb nakalivanija Л1 is included(switched on). Through it(her) the impulse current, however a luminescence flows remains continuous, the thread of a bulb has not time to cool down in breaks between impulses. The variable resistor 2 adjust(regulate) force of light.
In the most economical regimen impulse (the hiatus lasts 0,125-0,375 mks) the consumed post makes 0,2 century the General(Common) service life of a battery in a pulsed operation time as the capacity of galvanic cells is enlarged in 1,5-3 times at paзряде by a current less nominal(rated) and with breaks is enlarged approximately at 6-10.