Marching Ovens

Dryings of equipment and cooking are applied in winter hikes on forest regions to heating tents. At a burning oven in tent happens warmly even at the big frost. The design of marching furnaces depends on type and the size of tents. In small tents it is possible to use only pendant ovens for heating, in more spacious - floor-stand for heating and, probably, for cooking nutrition.

The industry practically does not let out(release) any portable(transportable) ovens for tourists. Therefore all the ovens applied by tourists in hikes, basically self-made. In hikes of the day off of an oven for the present use a little. However in connection with small quantity(amount) of a dead wood in vicinities(environs) of conurbations manufacturing and application of ovens in winter hikes of the day off (especially two-day and three-four-day in holidays) gets great value.

All variety of ovens can be parted conditionally:

In the form - on rectangular, semicircular, oval;

On readiness for utilization - on collected (welded, rivetted), harmonious(collapsible) and non-disposable;

On ways of the equipment(installation) - on floor-stand (on legs(pinches)) and pendant;

On a locating of the case and packing(stacking) of fire wood - on horizontal and vertical;

To destination - for heating or for heating and cooking.

Thermoexchange between an oven and an environment occurs(happens) due to a convection and emission of radiant energy. Power of a caloradiance depends on temperature of heating of an oven, a material of which she is made, and the areas of a radiating surface. Intensity konvektsionnogo thermoexchange is defined(determined) by the form of an oven and a place of its(her) equipment(installation) in tent. For a thermolysis the angle of an inclination of a pipe matters also. Risings of a thermolysis and decrease of quantity(amount) of taking off sparks can achieve due to change of a direction of movement of hot gases in an oven by means of one-two otbojnyh sheets from steel thickness of 0,5 mm. Various variants of schemes(plans) are shown on fig. 49 and, century the Disadvantage of variants and and would be impossibility of augmentation of draft and complexity of alcoholization of the sheets changing a direction of a stream of gases, and also augmentation of the sizes of an oven. In an oven with target knees (fig. 49) at good draft three knees are used, at bad - one. It is more convenient, than in an oven with otbojnymi sheets. At transportation of a knee place inside of an oven together with a pipe.

Fig. 49. Schemes(plans) of change of a direction of hot gases of marching ovens:
One otbojnyj a leaf(sheet); two otbojnyh a leaf(sheet); a knee of a pipe.

Pipe depending on the form of tent and an installation site of an oven have upright or naklonno.

The best material for the case of an oven is heat resisting stainless steel thickness of 0,25-0,5 mm. Fire bars can be made of a grid with diameter of a wire 1,5-2 mm or lea steel thickness up to 1 mm. Otbojnye sheets do(make) also of a heat resisting material by thickness not less than 0,5 mm that they were less deformed at heating.
Fig. 50. Designs of ovens for heating:, not non-disposable with vertical occupancy of fire wood; non-disposable 1. A pipe. 2. A cap(cover). 3. Blew, a door

Small ovens for heating can be flat width about 15 sm with vertical occupancy of fire wood (fig. 50 and,). Force of draft depends on a degree of opening of a door or blew. The tent on a four needs to be heated an oven in the sizes 250 h 200 h 120 mm with a pipe in diameter 60 see For tent on 7-9 person the oven in the sizes 350 h 220 h 170 mm and a pipe in diameter of 70 mm is sufficient. Fuel load from above. The oven can be suspended to a rope stretched under the skate of tent and fixed whenever possible separately from delays of tent, tent tent such oven attach to central kolu by means of arms or two drills rolled in kol at different height. Ropes from four angles of an oven fasten to the upper drill. The jack welded on an oven leans(bases) on a hinge of the bottom drill. The design of an oven excludes abaissement of coals and their hit for a bottom(fundus) of tent, sleeping bags or other things.

Non-disposable ovens are more convenient in transportation, but to collect and assort them it is necessary daily, often on a frost.

One of designs of a circular pendant heating oven is presented(introduced) on fig. 50 century the Cylinder in diameter of 20-25 sm and in the length 35-45 sm fold lea stainless steel thickness of 0,2-0,3 mm. The leaf(sheet) 1 is kept in the folded state rings. End faces of the cylinder put on caps(covers) 2, 3 of steel thickness of 0,5 mm kept in trips. In one end face a door with adjustable podduvalom, in other - a branch pipe for alcoholization of a pipe. Inside insert a lattice of the pan. The oven is suspended on ropes. The oven easily understands, the cylinder in marching position is folded in a narrow pipe. Weight of an oven - 1,5-2 weight of a pipe in length of 1,3 m made of stainless steel, - 0,8 kg. In working position a leaf(sheet) of a pipe will curtail(turn) along a long axis, in marching - along short.
Fig. 51. A suspension bracket of a heating oven in tent. 1. A cable to which the oven is suspended. 2. A ring in an end face of the skate.

The scheme(plan) of a suspension bracket of a heating oven is shown on fig. 51. The below the oven is established(installed), the is better she warms. Therefore in greater(big) scarfs without a bottom(fundus) apply floor-stand ovens on legs(pinches) is more often.
Fig. 52. Floor-stand standing ovens for heating.

Floor-stand standing ovens have the form of a rectangular parallelepiped (fig. 52) is more often. For heating tent tent there is enough oven in the size 190 h 240 h 300 mm, the thickness welded(cooked) from stainless steel of 0,25-0,3 mm with a fire bar thickness of 0,5 mm (fig. 52). The steel oven (without a pipe) weighs 1,2-1,5 kg. The floor-stand oven is expedient for using not only for heating, but also for cooking nutrition, that almost without augmentation of dimensions and weight considerably reduces necessary quantity(amount) of fuel, facilitates and reduces works on a camp, frames the best conditions for rest(tour), enables to stop on a forest boundary or even behind its(his) limits.

For group 6-10 person it is possible to recommend an oven for heating and cookings (fig. 53) from stainless steel thickness of 0,25-0,3 mm in the size 210 h 250 h 385 (465) mm. The pipe in length of 1,3-1,5 m is folded lea steel in width of 40 sm, thickness of 0,15 mm and is fixed by rings.
Fig. 53. An oven for heating and cookings on group 6-10 person: a general appearance; a kind and the sizes in three projections      A Fig. 53. An oven for heating and cookings on group 6-10 person: detalirovka
Fig. 54. A harmonious(collapsible) heating oven: a general appearance; an oven in the combined kind.

Buckets oval - complete with an oven - from the same material (a stainless steel of 0,3 mm), capacity 6; 6,5 and 7 l for group 9-19 person and 5; 5,5 and 6 l for group-7 the person, are inserted each other. Weight of buckets of 1,5 kg (1,2 kg). On each participant it is necessary totally 1,5-2 l to capacity of utensils.

In any hikes it is convenient to have three capacities that it was possible to prepare on a fire(shive) simultaneously for three dishes or to have a moisture reserve (cold or warm) in the third bucket. In an oven there is a jack only for one bucket, to prepare for dishes it is necessary serially, but at the correct organization it borrows(occupies) no more time, than on a fire(shive).

Buckets can be made of tin-plate, aluminium, stainless steel or a titanium. The form - cylindrical or oval. The flat buckets, inserted one in another are convenient. Buckets can "go" in an oven (in the jack) or separately in materchatyh covers; with buckets transfer(carry) polovniki (greater(big) razlivatelnye spoons), basts, a cloth from polyethylene or oilcloths, to a steam(pair) kostrovyh canvas mittens. One of variants of a harmonious(collapsible) oven is shown on fig. 54. The oven can develop only at keeping a following condition: 3 and 4 on width it is less than wall on 8-10 mm stenok 1 and 2. End faces 6 krepjat to a wall 1 by means of hinges, and to a wall 3 - lamellar(plate-like) springs 7. Walls and bridge hinges rivets or punctual(dot) electric welding. Oblique obodki 8 provide an adhering of the case to end faces without a backlash.
Fig. 55. Schemes(plans) of the equipment(installation) of pipes of marching ovens. 1. Glass cloth. 2. A wire ring. 3. A thin copper wire. 4. Heat-resistant mufta. 5. A reflector. 6. Krepjashchie rings. 7. A pipe. 8. An insuring rope. 9. A knee. 10. A branch pipe. 11. An oven.

Pipes of marching ovens can be faggot, telescopic and curtailed in length from a leaf(sheet) (fig. 55). The faggot pipe can be made of the several cone-shaped parts cleaned(removed) in a non-working state in an oven. Thickness of steel - no more than 0,3 mm. It is possible to apply and more simple pipe curtailed(turned) from a long narrow leaf(sheet) of flexible thin steel (0,15-0,20 mm). In working order the pipe is kept by rings as it is already noted above. It is possible to curtail(turn) a pipe and in the form of a spiral from a narrow strip in length of 4-5 m. For fastening the extremities(ends) of a pipe it is possible to use cans of corresponding(meeting) diameters or specially made obechajki. On the leaf(sheet) curtailed(turned) into a roller outside dress bottom obechajku a little. Extend a roller for an inner coil till desirable length, insert inside and outside of a pipe the second obechajku. The design rasklinivaetsja also becomes rigid. External obechajku in the upper part of a pipe it is possible to combine with a spark arrester.

For the prevention(warning) prozhiganija tents sparks taking off from a pipe an oven it is necessary to equip with a spark arrester which is putting on on top of a pipe, and also a cross-section(transversal) septum in the extremity(end) topochnogo spaces. Holes in a septum should exceed the area of section of a pipe.

Designs of spark arresters can be different, from a simple reflector from a can with the emphasises, put on on the extremity(end) of a pipe, up to more complex(difficult) iskrogasitelja-экономайзера (fig. 55).

"Ecological" kitchen(cuisine) and taganok can be used in years(summer) hikes. They enable to spare the nature: to spare fire wood and to not leave after itself bald spots kostrishch.

The mobile kitchen (fig. 56) consists of the case 1 with piling legs(pinches) 2, pipes in 3 diameter about 70 mm, supports 4 for a girdle, the pan 5, a cap(cover) of 6 and two aluminium cans kept by metal tapes 7 with handles-locks 8.
Fig. 56. "Ecological" kitchen(cuisine) (and,) and taganok ().

The case of an oven for decrease of a caloradiance can be made double: external from an aluminium alloy (AMG) and inner from heat resisting thin steel; between them sheet asbestos with thickness about 3 mm is located. The support for a frying pan can be made of a wire thickness of 3 mm, the pan - from sheet steel with holes or from a metal grid.

Oven kindle(heat) at one taken out can. During cooking fire wood (dry branches, chips, shishki, a cortex) enclose(lay) through a pipe. Six litres of water heat before boiling for 12-14 minutes. Heating of a can turns out "one-sided", but gruel does not scorch. Weight of kitchen(cuisine) - about 3 kg.
Fig. 57. "Ecological" harmonious(collapsible) oven.

Taganok (fig. 56) consists of the circular metal pan with a side, three racks from a wire of 5-6 mm and lattices for the equipment(installation) of utensils. The form taganka is defined(determined) by magnitude and quantity(amount) of simultaneously established(installed) casseroles. The pan is done(made) with more lattices that fire covered casseroles from sides, and coals would not fall on land. On the pan that he has not burnt through(smashed up), before kindling it is desirable to fill land or sand.

The "ecological" harmonious(collapsible) oven is intended also for years(summer) hikes (fig. 57). Walls and a bottom(fundus) of the case are bridged(paired) among themselves sharnirno, that allows to combine them and to transfer(carry) in a case used as a pipe.

The sizes of an oven are defined(determined) by dimensions of utensils. The sizes in a drawing are calculated on a kettle in capacity 2,5 l. For 10-15 minutes it is possible to boil 2 l waters, using as fuel dry branches, chips, brushwood, shishki, etc.