Campfire facilitiesCampfire facilities(economy) are fittings for suspension or the equipments(installations) of buckets of boilers, casseroles, more oppositely; it also cooking utensils, marching axes, saws, etc.
Most - rogatinu 70-80 sm - drive in the simple fitting in height into land on distance about 1 m from the center of a fire. On rogatinu put a pole which one extremity(end) press down a stone or drive in into land, and on another hang up a bucket or a casserole so that the flame of a fire covered a bottom(fundus) of utensils and its(her) side walls. On such fitting it is possible to hang no more than two capacities for cooking.
For preparation of several dishes most simple and "ancient" kostrishche it is those: two drive in into land rogatiny or racks with hammered or screwed in in them metal rogulkami and put on them a slat. Utensils suspend to her on wire hooks (fig. 13).
Developing(Piling) or non-disposable tagany it is possible to make(produce) of steel strias, tubes, corners (fig. 14 and,).
Fig. 14. Campfire fittings: a slat on rogulkah from metal tubes; the non-disposable center from prutkov; an arm; a harmonious(collapsible) slat; steel taganok; hooks for a suspension bracket of utensils above a fire; metal rogulki and holders. 1. Steel. 2. Duralumin. 3. The bush. 4. A steel corner. 5. The terminator.
Improvised tagany it is possible to build from stones, to move them to each other on distance, smaller diameter of utensils.
The ropes tense between trees for a suspension bracket of buckets and boilers concern to campfire fittings (fig. 13), harmonious(collapsible) tagany, light(mild) tripods, the non-disposable centers from metal bars, arms (fig. 14 in, g,) also.
And resettings of utensils above the center on height apply metal hooks and chains to a suspension bracket.
That at sagging a rope the utensils did not roll down(did not slide) to the middle, on him put through everyone of 15-20 sm metal muftochki, serving by emphasises for hooks. The special clamps keeping a suspension bracket in any place of a rope (fig. 13) are possible(probable) also.
For delution of small fires it is possible to use a metal hammock (fig. 15) - a thin light(mild) wire grid (diameter of a wire of 0,5-1 mm, of 8-10 mm) the size nearby 50 h 80 see the Grid pull cells above land between trees, otstojashchimi from each other on 3-4 m, by means of ropes 2, 3. Rasporki 4 keep a grid from a folding. The grid-hammock protects in the summer a grass from burning-out, and does not give a shive protajat during a snow in the winter.
Ropes, hammocks are convenient for woody places; for opened(open) - with marshy or petrous soil - the non-disposable centers, harmonious(collapsible) tagany, arms.
Fig. 15. A campfire grid and a cable with hooks 1. Grids. 2 and 5. A cable. 3 and 6. A cable or a kapron cord. 4. Rasporki. 7. Hooks.
The height of suspended utensils is defined(determined) by a kind of fuel, a wind, weather. At dry needle-leaved fire wood in clear silent weather the height will be more, than for peat, coal, crude brushwood, rainy or windy weather.
For campfire rogulek, as well as for any other marching needs - for example, racks and pegs for tents, - it is impossible to mince alive trees or branches, let it even a fast-growing aspen or an alder; Earlier when forests was more and they were more dense, and people in them was less, it was possible prorezhivat a bush, and now in the populated places - already it is impossible. The nature suffers the increasing loss from human activity. It is possible, the truth to use already cut down, fallen and even dry trees.
It is better, if in a campfire set there will be two short metal rogulki (metal half rings in diameter of 7-8 sm) with acute pins which can be hammered or screwed in in any kol. Even easier - the hooks-captures executed by a principle elektromonterskih of cats for a climbing in wooden columns. Such hooks can be hung on any kol on which they will be fixed by the zubjami, especially under a load of a slat with buckets.
The center or for a slat can be built legs also from the large stones laid against each other.
The metal cable is most convenient for suspension of boilers and buckets if there are trees between which it(he) can be pulled. The cable is desirable for having long enough (6-8) that it was possible to use far costing(standing) trees. On a cable муфточки-terminators which interfere with moving of hooks at sagging a cable are fixed. If to apply hooks with clamps muftochki are not necessary as the geniculate hook itself is cliped on a cable. It is possible to manage a cable of 3-4 m with the two-meter pieces of a kapron cord which are not getting in a zone of fire adhered on its(his) extremities(ends). To transfer(carry) a cable conveniently reeled up on the special reel-reel.
To suspension of utensils above a fire apply metal hooks. With their help easily to take out or hang up utensils, to adjust(regulate) its(her) height above fire.
If above a fire there will be only one bucket it is possible as it was already marked(celebrated), to thrust naklonno shest in land, podperet its(his) one rogulkoj, a stone, shall kick, etc. and to hang up on its(his) extremity(end) a bucket above fire.
The cooking utensils steals up or made in view of numerosity of group, convenience of transportation, minimization of weight. The group utensils in the form of a kit from two-three cleaned(removed) in one “ flat buckets or casseroles of the oval form is convenient. On each participant of a hike should have about one litre of volume of utensils.
On fig. 16 variants of the cooking utensils executed from stainless steel, a tin, a titanium or aluminium by thickness of 0,5-1 mm are shown. A kit from three capacities (6,5; 7,5 and 8,5) will weigh from 1 up to 1,7 kg depending on a material and its(his) thickness.
Fig. 16. Cooking utensils
Flat buckets inserted each other or boilers (fig. 16 and, 6) can be used. To cooking on kerosene stoves apply the aluminium casseroles, also inserted one in another (fig. 16) is more often. There can be boilers and more complex(difficult) configuration (fig. 16), bottoms(funduses) having, however, a greater(big) area. Buckets, and boilers should have casseroles of the handle or chains (sometimes demountable) which would not prevent to put one capacity in another.
For cooking on a fire(shive) the zinced or enameled utensils is not necessary.
For transportation utensils stack in the beginning in a polyethylene sack, and then, for durability, in materchatyj a cover.
As utensils for cooking on a kerosene stove or gas it is better to take a kit from three casseroles with caps(covers), but it is more economic (on time and the charge of fuel) to use pressure-cookers (autoclaves).
Fig. 17. The Casserole-samovar
From a wind it is convenient to apply a chunk of glass cloth to shelter of a kerosene stove or the center or wind-shelter zharootrazhajushchie screens from other materials.
The design of a casserole-pressure cooker resulted(brought) here (fig. 17) gives appreciable economy of gasoline at cooking on kerosene stoves. In her the principle of a samovar is used: in day(bottom;fundus) of a duralumin casserole of the big diameter (under two-rub(-three) kerosene stoves) cut out a circular hole on which weld a cone due to what the area of heating is enlarged almost twice. It promotes faster cooking at the smaller charge of gasoline. The rounded off bottom(fundus) of the upper capacity densely enters into the bottom casserole and frames some effect of a pressure-cooker. In a cap(cover) of the upper casserole it is necessary to make a hole in which the upper part of a cone would act. Above this hole mount a small cap(cover) on which put for heating the third small utensils.
That kerosene stoves on a duralumin leaf(sheet) stood stably, do(make) the emphasises fixing their position.
Weight of two capacities on 8-10 the person does not exceed 1,2 kg.
The axe should be reliably and strongly nasazhenym on toporishche and suitable for preparation of fire wood and possible(probable) plotnitskih works. Thus the mass of an axe should be small. Axes of industrial(untrimmed) manufacturing on their mass can be parted on small (0,7-0,8 kg), average (0,8-1 kg) and greater(big) (up to 1,5 kg). Serious greater(big) axes to take a hike, naturally, it is undesirable, but it is possible to facilitate them.
Fig. 18. Axes
The most rational the paddle-type(bladed-surface) form of an axe at which the working edge is as though displaced back is considered, the edge is rounded off, the sting is grinded is wedge-shaped. Such axe can be made of the big axe, having cut off it(him) (fig. 18).
It is desirable, that the axe had borodku - a prominence(mamelon) at the bottom edge obushnoj eyes which enlarges the area of a leg of the handle. Steel of an axe should be moderately hard, at impact the file should leave weak dents on an edge.
Toporishche it is better to make from exsiccated komlevoj parts jasenja, an elm, a rowan, other fruiters, svilevatoj birches. Wedges(gussets) do(make) of hard breeds of a tree or metal with holes owing to which they are better kept. Before an attachment(a nozzle) in toporishche do(make) a propyl under a wedge. Toporishche should be nasazheno so that its(his) axis made with an axis of a direction of impact an angle less than 90: at the equipment(installation) of an axe by an edge on a plane (the line of impact is perpendicular planes) the extremity(end) toporishcha should concern(touch) a plane (fig. 18). Toporishche terminates in a thickening fixing an arm(a hand) in the form of a fungus. Such form allows to relax an arm(a hand) and to raise(increase) accuracy of impact. After an attachment(a nozzle) toporishche drive(adjust) on an arm(a hand), shkurjat; it is desirable to impregnate it(him) with drying oil. In toporishche it is useful to make a hole for temljaka which will not allow an axe to jump out of arms(hand) casually. Toporishche it is desirable to paint bright color.
On an edge of an axe it is necessary to make a cover of the dense material, kept elastic or outsets (fig. 18).
To strengthen an attachment(a nozzle) of an axe it is possible by means of two side steel plates in the sizes nearby 120 h 30 h 1,5-2 mm (fig. 18). Plates 1 with bends on one extremity(end) become stronger on toporishche bolts or rivets 2. At a desiccation toporishcha in it(him) drive in additional or thicker wedge 3. After an attachment(a nozzle) of an axe on toporishche in a cleft(rima) between them it is possible to fill in epoksidnyj fining agent.
Attachment(Nozzle) of an axe which eye is chiseled to a cone, make from the handle (fig. 18). Toporishche here direct and utolshchennoe to obushkovoj parts. If durability of an attachment(a nozzle) in due course weakens, an axe shift to the handle then again pull on konusnuju a part toporishcha.
On group 9-10 person enough two-three axes. In hikes of the day off it is possible to take only light(mild) axes, in the autumn in the summer and in the winter - the big axe and a saw is desirable.
Fig. 19. Saws 1. A saw. 2. Handles. 3. A cover. 4. Hooks. 5. Loops.
Bimanual saw. An ordinary industrial(untrimmed) saw it is necessary for relief and convenience of transportation to reduce, having truncated up to 0,7-0,8 m and obuziv up to 70-80 mm (fig. 19). Handles can be made in the form of izognutyh stirrups into which the arm(hand) in a mitten freely would enter, or in the form of the turning handles cleaned(removed) at transportation. A saw transfer(carry) in a cover 3 closing zubja. The cover fastens by means of elastics or tapes with hooks 4 and loops 5 on clasped(buttoned) buttons. The cover can be made of a canvas or other dense material.
Luchkovaja the saw can be lighter and more compactly bimanual. The cloth should be with large straight lines zubjami and holes on the extremities(ends) for alcoholization. One of variants of an onion consists of three tubes in diameter 12-16 h 1 mm (fig. 19). Tubes bridge among themselves by means of loose leaves from short tubes of smaller diameter. The radius of a flexure of arches is picked up so that the collected onion gave a necessary tension to a cloth. The extremities(ends) of marginal arches strengthen short bushes with well boats) turned to a cloth. In these well boats the extremities(ends) of a cloth with rivets-emphasises by which the cloth in tense an onion Mass of such saw about 0,5 kg is kept are got(started).
Metacarpal saws. In simple years(summer) hikes and in winter - in tundra districts, above a forest boundary - it is necessary to have 1-2 metacarpal saws (fig. 19). Nozhovku use for preparation of fire wood, narezanija snow bricks at building-up wind-shelter stenok around of tent, a needle, caves and other snow constructions. A saw transfer(carry) in a cover 1.
One-manual saws with the demountable handle are convenient.
To sharpen saws it is desirable on the Canadian way when through a tooth do(make) deeper bore-dredging.