Lodging for the night without tentThe years(summer) improvised shelters for a halt or a lodging for the night can be built from improvised materials. The improvised tent can be made of a polyethylene film thrown through a cord, 1-1,5 m tense at height between trees, with, that the roof was formed dvuskatnaja. From end faces of edge of Membranula(film) turn vnahlest and strengthen. In the form of an awning, odnoskatnogo or dvuskatnogo (depending on the sizes of a material, height of a suspension bracket, quantity(amount) of people) it is possible to make shelter also of a polyethylene film, kalandrirovannogo Capronum, a thin canvas and other materials (fig. 5). By means of an awning it is possible to protect a fire from a rain and a wind also. At absence of a material people can be covered under dense branches of a fur-tree, a pine, a birch, a linden, other trees, under casual canopies and shelters natural or an artificial origin. As shelters can serve and a canopy, a tent, a dugout, made by participants of a hike depending on presence of "building materials", abilities and skill.
If the route passes(takes place) in the winter in a wood zone and the quantity(amount) of lodgings for the night those of housing is insignificant, it is possible to do without tent and to spend the night at a fire. For such lodging for the night is better the fire from three logs in length of 1,5-2,5 m (fig. 6) approaches(suits). However the device of a lodging for the night at a fire - work labour-consuming. The core - it is shaky, transportation and cutting sushin. It is better to plant a fire on land, having cleared away a snow, if he not so deep. Then to make a flooring, using a fine kecks, lapnik (in distant districts). If to not clear away a snow up to land the flooring should be made stronger. In the beginning to put crude and rotten valezhiny across the future fire, and then - along it(him). Without a flooring the fire will fail during melted snow.
Fig. 6. Fires(shives) from two-three logs and barriers-reflectors.
The toshche logs, the more longly they burn. For group 8-11 person enough three, logs thickness of 35 sm and more, six logs in diameter of 25-30 sm, eight-nine diameter 20 sm and nearby 15 thickness 15 see At thickness of logs at komlja less than 15 their sm are necessary much, they quickly burn down. It is necessary to fall down one big tree or two averages, and sowing it is less, 3-4. It is desirable, that trunks were identical; that they adjoined to each other more densely, they should be cleared from suchev. Enough of fire wood leave and for the morning. Owe a life a hot fire, differently collectings in the morning will be unpleasant and long. Before leaving(care) of a log of a fire extinguish, rolling out them on a snow. It is possible then put them upright, prisloniv to each other or to stumps. Then logs can use and others.
On two bottom logs light the fine brushwood put across on all length of logs. On these logs well preliminary to make notches then they will better light up. The third log, the biggest, put on burning brushwood. Dry tarry logs quickly light up from the sides turned to each other. In process of burning the upper log falls, automatically adjusting(regulating) intensity of a flame. The bottom logs burn down more slowly, they should be shifted from time to time. If heat is too much, possible to lift the upper log on linings (two crude branches to put across the bottom logs on their edges), and bottom to move apart. The more the backlash between logs, the burns more weakly and more slowly the fire burns down. The upper log at its(his) average thickness of 30 sm suffices at 3-4 o'clock, then it(him) replace new. The bottom logs burn down more slowly.
It is more complex(difficult) to build nodju - a fire from two logs. Here one log lays on the friend who has ranged on a lining, and is kept to four thick crude koljami. Nodju it is necessary to construct, if there is no third log for a fire from three logs.
Sleeping it will be warm, if they are shined(covered) by beams of a fire - only they heat. Therefore the flooring for a lodging for the night is better for making slope to fire, and also to deepen it(him) that the fire was above. Thus beams of a fire will fall on sleeping more abruptly and from above. As a drawsheet for bed by tradition always served lapnik. However, as it was already marked(celebrated), in connection with very wide development of tourism preparation lapnika damages to a forest. It is desirable to not fracture therefore a branch of coniferous trees, and to put a polyethylene film on the trampled down snow, atop carried - penoplastovye mats and porolonovye kovriki. Under sleeping bags it is quite enough such drawsheet. For protection against a wind, a snow and for some reflection of beams on sleeping it is desirable to pull an awning from a light(mild) canvas. Capronum for this purpose is unusable: sparks its(his) progarrot. Sleeping bags as fur-tree and pine logs strongly shoot coals can especially suffer from sparks. For protection of sleeping bags against sparks they can be covered a thin old cloth.
Fig. 7. Shelters winter:, at a tree trunk; a snow dugout; shelter with a skeleton from the skis bridged by a metal ring; a horizontal snow cave-niche at depth of a snow about 1 m.
1. Film(Membranula). 2. Branches. 3. Skis. 4. Snow blocks(trochleas). 5. Well boats for toes(socks) of skis. 6. Bonds of a ring. 7. Plates of a ring.
Using a land forms, it is possible to be arranged sometimes even easier. Excavations in steep to riverbank, or rocks use breakages as natural reflection shields. Sleep between a fire and breakage or a rock.
Snow, pits, most quickly it is possible to dig caves at presence of a dense and thick snow mantle and natural snow pits, slopes, snow banks. The shelter can be dug at podnozhja a large dense fur-tree at a deep snow (fig. 7), deepening a cavity around of a trunk and blocking all top poles, branches, skis, and atop of it(this) Membranula(film), a warm canvas, other tissue. Edges prisypajut a snow or privalivajut gentle blocks(trochleas). Top it is possible to fall asleep a snow completely if overlapping(blocking) is strong enough. A bottom(fundus) line branches, lapnikom, Membranula(film).
In a winter taiga where thickness of a snow is more than meter, it is possible to spend the night in the deep pit dug up to land. In this pit it is necessary to support(maintain) a fire (better nodju). From a wind it is better to make a barrier of a snow or branches.
Sometimes in a taiga spend the night on a so-called hunting way: plant a fire on the area some square meters, warming up land, after shift it(him) aside, dim warm land fine branches, lapnikom, atop of them put backpacks, other soft equipment. To sleep on such place warmly, however to warm up land some hours are necessary, using it is a lot of fire wood. The organization of such lodging for the night is labour-consuming and will borrow(occupy) not less than 1,5-2 hours even from the skilled(experienced) tourists having saws and axes.
In bezlesnyh districts in the winter often it is necessary to build wind-shelter walls at lodgings for the night in tents and without them. For reception of snow bricks it is possible to use nozhovkami, special shovels from aluminium alloys, long kitchen knifes. For brick career suits the condensed ice-film. Bricks with the upper side in the size approximately 60 h 30 sm are convenient and in height 30 see Bricks put the upper side on bricks of the bottom girdle so that each of them leaned(based) on two bottom, blocking a joint. It is a condition of durability of a wall.
If there is time and a suitable snow (a hard ice-film), it is possible to construct for a lodging for the night a snow hut - a needle. In the first series of the bricks cut the same as and for wind-shelter stenok, and established(installed) lengthways preliminary outlined circle, the next bricks cut off on a spiral. On this spiral the wall of a hut (fig. 8 and,) is increased. Already the first series of bricks put naklonno. Following series are put with the increasing inclination chosen so that diameter of the upper hole of a hut were nearby polumetra. This hole close the closing plate, leaning(basing) one angle on last brick.
Fig. 8. Bespalatochnye winter and mountain lodgings for the night:, 6) a snow hut a needle;) a snow bowl on a slope at depth of a snow not less than 2 m; a cave-полухижина on a slope at depth of a snow mantle less than 2 m; the niche for a lodging for the night sitting (it is constructed at lovely thickness of a snow or at a disadvantage of time). A Fig. 9. Individual emergency winter shelters: shelter in dense nastovom to a snow; a canopy above the upper part of a body 1. Dredging in an ice-film. 2. Snow blocks(trochleas). 3. A polyethylene film. 4. The rods incurvated by an arch
The more a hut, the there should be an inclination of the first of some bricks and above a pencil-point part of construction less. Each brick is got jammed at packing(stacking) next, therefore the dome of a hut gets fastness. Clefts(rima) pawn fragments of bricks. If full a needle it is impossible, it is possible to block a ceiling skis, palkami, having covered with their polyethylene film and having imposed with snow bricks it is less. Building-up a needle demands good skill. Build their capacity no more, than on 3 persons (it is difficult to make more), and borrows(occupies) such Building-up some hours. Therefore “ to conceive a needle ” it is necessary, if thickness of a snow does not allow to dig a deep pit (on an ice of greater(big) reservoirs, on solar and navetrennyh malosnezhnyh slopes) and to make more simple shelter.
At presence of a suitable slope, naduva, the big snow bank it is possible to spend the night in a snow cave, to build which happens easier, than a needle. It is preliminary necessary to probe a slope a stick to be convinced, that it is enough snow. A cave do(make) no more, than on 4-5 person. In a dense slope a snow cut nozhovkoj, choose casseroles, bowls, skis. Walls level a shovel. The basic volume of a cave do(make) domed with height in the center about 1,5 m. the Floor of a cave do(make) sloping, above a level of an input(entrance) that Carbonei dioxydum did not accumulate! After the termination(ending) of construction an input(entrance) pawn till the minimal size. The temperature in a hut or a cave normally does not fall subzero. On a floor put Membranula(film), penopolietilenovye kovriki, from above - sleeping bags and other equipment.
At greater(big) heights, at low temperature, a bad weather, strong here re, and also counting upon two and more spending the night on one place also beams to build a snow hut or otryt a cave that will provide more comfortable lodging for the night, safety of equipment. The snow cave or a hut contains 4-6 person. At the big group it is possible to build 2-3 caves, having bridged their manhole.
In the improvised cold shelter at absence of sleeping bags it is necessary to put on itself all warm clothes, having put under itself the remained things and having isolated whenever possible from a snow. A hood shtormovki dress on a head, nestle to each other. Legs(foots) can be put in a backpack.
If the tourist has lost the way, has lagged behind group, at presence of a hard ice-film it is possible to make quickly individual shelter (fig. 9) by means of nozhovki or shovels. Clefts(rima) between blocks(trochleas) close up outside or from within a snow, an input(entrance) close a snow brick.
At a deep and quaggy snow it is possible to bury as a last resort at a frost in it(him) More deeply, having turned(inwrapped) in any clothes or equipment, having closed a head, knees to tighten to a chest, to move with arms(hand) and legs(foots). The basic difficulty at they be to not fall asleep.