The organization of tourist parking

Travellers spend on halts about two thirds of marching time, that is the most part of a route is necessary on parking.

The tourist camp is a place of a halt where travellers have a rest, eat, spend the night, prepare for the further way; it is base camp at the radial organization of a route; this shelter from a bad weather, is a fire, the center, the center of dialogue, comprehension passed(taken place) and planning of a forthcoming way. The camp is a house in which we live during a hike.

On duration part small halts (for rest(tour), changings clothes, reconditioning), lunch halts, lodgings for the night, dnevki. In one-day hikes arrange only small and lunch halts. In two-day and more long hikes on camps also spend the night, and also arrange dnevki when do not move further on a route: have a rest, bathe, collect berries, mushrooms, fish, make walks, excursions.

The organization of a halt is, first of all, a correct and competent choice of a place, good preparation of a platform, distribution of works, the equipment(installation) palatok, delution of a fire or rastopka ovens or kerosene stoves and, the most important, a safety of parking from forces majeure and the nuisances framed by the person.

On halts, except for rest(tour) and reception of nutrition, repair clothes and equipment, observe of the nature under the certain(specific) program, lead dnevnikovye records (observations, sketches, records about a route, the nature, vicinities(environs)). On halts sing songs, have a good time, engaged in sports or trainings. During halts and dnevok collect mushrooms, berries, fish, get acquainted with environing district in more detail, spend walks and excursions.

More shortly, on halts there passes(there takes place) the most part of a camp life.

Small halts - the shortest and simple hiatuses and stoppings in a way - are done(made) basically for rest(tour) in 1-2 hours of a way. Therefore the place for small halts is defined(determined) mainly by time of transitions. Certainly, it is good, if small halts will fall to equal enough and dry sites on glades, forest margins, roadsides of roads and tracks. It is good to range at a source of a drinking water - a well, a key or the pure(clean) brook. At a wind it is good to stop in shelter (a strip of a forest, a thricket of a bush, a coasted escarpment, etc.). If time and a place promote expance of mosquitoes and other midges to stop better on insufflated sites. It is better to stop on the sun, and in the summer at fever(heat) - in a shadow in the winter.

On a small halt it is good to eat an acidic sweet, to accept vitamins, to freshelize the face, to rinse a mouth cold water; it is possible to drink some drinks of hot tea or coffee from a thermos. To have a rest in the pedestrian hikes it is possible on the dry land, the tumbled down trees, stumps.

In water hikes, on the contrary, there is a sense to make sports warm-up, to run about, jump, be kneaded. A place for a small halt in a water hike whenever possible choose in convenient for mooring courts(vessels) a place, with a dry landing on a shore.

In the winter before a stopping it is necessary to lower rate of movement, if he was fast some(a little;a little bit) to cool down. In a frost after a stopping it is necessary to put on a warm jacket, a sweater. The backpack can be lowered(omitted) on a polyethylene film, to hang up on suk, to put on a log, to put on the skis. To load backpacks it is desirable so that on them it was possible to sit down if necessary, not having crushed something from subjects of equipment or products.

Time of small halts can change from several minutes up to poluchasa.

Lunch halts are longer stoppings for rest(tour) and deliveries. A place for a lunch halt choose more carefully, than for small.

In the summer it is good to choose an equal platform on riverbank or lakes where there is a dry fuel - brushwood, a kecks, vetroval, a dead wood. To stop on the river it is desirable above settlements, cattle-breeding farms, drinking places, fords. An ideal event to which it is desirable to aspire, - a quiet reach with convenient draining offs to water, with sandy bottom(fundus), without snags.

One of the main conditions of a choice of a place of a lunch halt becomes presence of a pure(clean) drinking water: a well, a spring, a key. Water from the majority of the rivers in a densety populated part of the country now for a drinking is unusable (runoffs of the industrial(untrimmed) enterprises, cattle-breeding farms; an outwash from the fields processed by artificial fertilizers).

In water hikes the same conditions: a convenient jetty, the equal dry landing protected from a wind or, on the contrary, insufflated (at presence of midges) a place.

Good fuel is especially necessary on a place of a winter halt. Presence of a source of a drinking water (the brook, a spring, a well) thus is desirable, if cook hot food, but water can be received and from a snow.

At a stopping for a dinner of one-two person follow water, some(a little bit) person prepare the fuel, one - equips kostrishche and kindles(heats) a fire. Persons on duty cook a dinner, the others are free - have a rest, fish, bathe, collect mushrooms, berries.

In solar weather at this time it is possible to dry clothes, tents, other things.

Duration of a halt in the summer - not less than hour. In the winter, at short light day(bottom;fundus), a lunch halt try to make shorter. Its(his) duration depends on rate of delution of a fire and cooking. Duties (preparation of fuel, delution of a fire(shive), cooking) happen are already distributed(allocated) in advance. In bivachnyh works all tourists, that not merznut in the winter participate.

If have dinner without a fire (tea, coffee from thermoses, sandwiches, a dried fruit), that in winter conditions often and happens, especially in lasting many days hikes (because of economy of light time) the dinner lasts less hour.
Parking for lodgings for the night and dnevok

The paleocrystic practice has allowed to develop(produce) criteria to which average parking should answer. Parking should have such "fantastic" characteristics:

1. To be deserted and had as it is possible further from settlements (“ we in a hike have gone(send) to be on the nature, instead of to be pushed among... ”);

To be near village (“ molochka... ”, “ jablochek... ”);

2. On parking there should be enough fuel, and not any, but dry fur-tree.

3. Close (well in any way further 20) should be a dense forest.

4. This place where it would be possible to put tent so that in the afternoon she was in a shadow, and in the morning se shined(covered) the sun (to not wait when she will dry up(dry) from dew on a wind).

5. Series should be the river with a pure water and a sandy beach, and also porosshy a pine a high shore, and under it(him) is full of a fish.

6. Series should not be high mountain with threat of a landslide that in case of a rain or loud delights in occasion of caught plotvichki nothing happens.

7. Series - a spring, at worst - the brook with cold water; but that in case of a strong rain he did not turn to the stormy river.

8. Berries - it is obligatory!

9. Mushrooms - it is indispensable!

10. Nuts - by itself!

11. Scrubs - without them it is bad!

12. But that neither mosquitoes, nor midges, neither botflies, nor flies, ticks(mites;tong), tarantulas, phalanxes, royal cobras or vipers.

13. The kind opening from a parking lot, should please an eye and caress soul.

And such items(points) should be 113.

Let's not hide the severe truth: ideal parking which would satisfy to all items(points) to find hardly, and can be - at all, it is impossible.

Therefore, the parking typing(collecting) 77 items(points) comes across to a fur-tree, choose it(her) without hesitation, 41 item(point) - and such will approach(suit). To neglect trinadtsatipunktovoj too it is not necessary. At last (that does not happen) parking which does not satisfy to any item(point) can turn up, - stop, for it is necessary to spend the night all the same...

Clearly, that resulted(brought) "conditions" is a unattainable ideal, in any measure a cartoon, a joke, but nevertheless in each joke...

In an average strip of the country the basic demand shown to a place of a camp, - safety - almost always is easily satisfied. It is more complex(difficult) to choose a place convenient and whenever possible picturesque, with presence of water and fire wood. In the summer in an average strip water is more important; in the autumn, in the winter and in the spring - fire wood as at this time a pure water to get is lighter (any wood pool more purely(cleanly), than the river). It is undesirable, as it has already noted been, to range on riverbank below greater(big) settlements, near the industrial(untrimmed) enterprises, proezzhih roads, transmission lines, near reservoirs with stagnant water.

The place for camp should be first of all dry.

In moss taiga forests to find such site happens hardly. To range is better nearby from the brook or a rivulet, on the open places. The breeze insufflating a place of camp, will protect from midges. In steppe and deserted places, on the contrary, camp it is desirable razbivav there where there is any greenery. It is better to not put tent under a high sprawling tree as at its(his) thunder-storm the lightning can easily amaze(strike). At an approaching thunder-storm it is not necessary to stop on crests, tops of hills, passes. It is not necessary to put camp on flooded river bank lands, in beds(channels) of the dried up streams, on low islands.

The camp is had rather successfully if the camp is put in a picturesque place, with convenient approaches to water if nearby there is good fire wood, the place is protected from a wind in the winter and insufflated in the summer (in hot weather or at presence of mosquitoes). It is quite good, if the place of a camp is covered also tents it is possible to stretch(drag out) between trees. Near to a camp there should not be high, begun to rot trees - they can fall down and fall to people, a fire, tents. It is good, if in the morning the camp is shined(covered) by the sun (east slopes of a hill, east forest edge, riverbank, etc.). Here the condensate and dew on tents more quickly dry out. Certainly, it is pleasant to stop in a picturesque place and where besides it is possible to be expiated.

In winter lodgings for the night the main thing - protection against a cold, a wind, a moisture. It is important to provide normal rest(tour) and a dream. To spend the night it is possible in tents, at fires, in snow huts or caves.

For a camp, especially in mountains, it is necessary to choose a place before dark. At the compelled(forced) stopping in darkness or in a fog it is necessary to survey a place in radius of 200-300 m to be convinced of its(his) safety. Before a dream it is necessary to check up, how tents as the property is covered from a wind and a rain are strengthened.

In the winter a camp have there where there is a fuel, a dead wood. The best fire wood are zasohshie on a root a fur-tree and a pine. Good sushiny leafy breeds meet seldom as they quickly begin to rot. Needle-leaved dry trees are protected from putrefaction by resin. However in a needle-leaved dead wood easily to be mistaken: the dead pine can not have time to dry up(dry) and it will be bad to burn. In leafy it is more difficult to forest to find good fire wood for the big fire, necessary in the winter for a warm lodging for the night.

To stop it is necessary before dark in the winter to choose good sushiny and to bring down them at light. It is good, if the place of a winter camp is protected thus from a wind by a dense shrub layer - better a fir grove.

In the winter often clear away a snow up to land for delution of a fire, less often - for the equipment(installation) palatok; do(make) passages to a fire and a toilet, build a wind-shelter wall of a snow, etc.

After a choice of a place for a camp at once solve, where there will be a fire if he is planned: then also places for palatok at once will be defined(determined). Tents establish(install) not more close, than in 4-5 m from a fire that on them sparks did not get.

Fires(Shives), naturally, do not plant on peat lands, under crones of trees and on their roots, close skird some hay or straw, near to structures. It is desirable to plant a fire on a place old kostrishcha. Fires(shives) cannot be planted in park-forests and residential suburbs, recreational areas, in territory of protection regimes and reserves.

The organization of a lodging for the night in the summer and borrows(occupies) till two o'clock in the winter; to choose a place therefore it is necessary before dark. Especially it is important in mountains as in twilight and at night to define(determine) lavinoopasnost a place chosen for a camp, impossible. In a wood zone in mountains it is necessary to range far away from avalanche glades. In opened(open) bezlesnoj the valley can arrange a camp under protection of rocky walls, on a side terrace under rocky crests or on Sonth rocky slopes, free from a snow, on an average part of an ice cellar far away from lavinoopasnyh northern slopes, under a free slope from a snow. If to stop on the closed ice cellar it is necessary to protect a site where cracks are possible(probable). It is better to not range in hiatuses with a narrow input(entrance) between stones - he can be filled up by a snow in a blizzard. For protection against a wind the tent is good for putting under a greater(big) stone or a rock, but without a hanging snow eaves.

In mountains it is necessary to consider features of a land forms and weather to avoid hit under rockfalls, an avalanche, landslides, mudstreams. It is impossible to arrange a camp on acting parts of crests, under eaves and abrupt slopes, in a lobby and ustevyh parts of their cones, on fresh (or laying on ice slopes) taluses, between serakami and in cracks of an ice cellar in a zone of active movement of an ice.

The camp should be calculated on sudden deterioration of weather. Before a thunder-storm all should be laid metal subjects in 25-30 m from parking.

Rather seductively happens to protect tent from a wind, having established(installed), it(her) under an abrupt slope, coasted breakage of the brook or small river. However look(see), whether hangs above a slope a snow eaves? During a bad weather, in conditions of bad visibility, the desire to be covered from a wind blunts care. It is better to construct a snow protective wall on the open place, on a wind, at snowstorm, than to be the knocked down fallen off eaves.

In bezlesnyh northern districts, in tundra, on ices (Polar Urals Mountains, tundra Bolshezemelskaja, etc.) at a lodging for the night in tents it is necessary to build always a wind-shelter wall around of tent of snow blocks(trochleas) (snowstorm often begins suddenly). Therefore it is not necessary to stop in places where a snow sdut or its(his) depth is insufficient for reception of snow "bricks".

There are different opinions on remoteness of a wall from tent. Nevertheless the wall established(installed) closely to tent is better, protects se from a wind (fig. 1) thus she will be shorter, but with navetrennoj the sides it is necessary to lay out an additional wall for protection of an input(entrance) of tent.

In mountains at a choice of a place of a lodging for the night Sonth and western slopes are preferable most nagretye for a day. Here it is necessary to choose rather equal platform, it is desirable in a forest, covered from a wind. In a forest during cold time temperature on some degrees above, and force of a wind is less, than on the open places. By the morning the difference in temperatures and in a forest and on the open places is even more humidity.
Fig. 1. A wind-shelter wall from snow blocks(trochleas)

In all droppings of a land forms cold air at night accumulates. Tents, it is better to put canopies, tents on eminences that at a rain has not filled in tent.

To spend the night in a bottomland of the river does not follow. A strip which is filled in with freshet waters, it is possible to define(determine) on a heap of the logs ground by water of branches, roots, grasses. Islands between the ducts spreading on a wide bottomland are especially hazardous. In mountain gorges blockages can be formed of trunks, branches, roots. A water collecting behind them breaks through a blockage and directs downwards shaft in height in some meters. Rate of rise of a water level even in a lower reaches of gorge happens such what to leave from a flood flow, especially at the device of a lodging for the night on island, it is impossible.

At the compelled(forced) choice of a place of a lodging for the night on slopes it is necessary to adhere ploshchadok on crests, but not in hollows where it is possible(probable) shod the broken stones. In the winter these places lavinoopasny. Places of fall of stones are normally noted by dents on trees, traces of impacts on executions with a stone crumb and a dust around.

Before a thunder-storm (development of striatal кучево-rain clouds, closeness, calm) do not stop on crests of ridges and under acting above a background of a forest high trees.

In dense it is better to forest to avoid places where many trunks of trees are roasted by a lightning; more often than other trees of a lightning amaze oaks and chestnuts, much less often - beeches, hardbeams, maples.

It is necessary to examine closely(attentively) trees at a place of a prospective camp, to tap dry and nonresistant trunks, dry hanging branches. Strong impulses of a wind can break suchja, branches, trees.

The source of water should be near to a place of a camp. During dry time (July - September) sources can appear dried up. At a long drought average and bottom current of the mountain rivers in places gravijno-галечных sedimentation can dry up completely, water goes in a depth(strata) of inwashes.

Water can meet in shady gorges where to a box of brooks it is executed by a rocky ground. More often sources are in headstreams of hollows.
Fig. 2. The collecting of adsorption water

The place of infiltration of subsoil waters - mochazhinu can be dug out an acute subject (ledorubom) and to wait water precipitation.

Near brightness of foliage is more than source. Water can specify moisture-loving plants - a cane, rogoz.

If the water level lays below, than it is possible to get to the bottom, it is possible to collect adsorption water by means of Membranula(film) (fig. 2).

At a choice of a place of a camp in water hikes it is desirable, that the riverbank was convenient for mooring and carrying out of courts(vessels), there was a platform for housing courts(vessels), palatok, a shive. It is desirable to search for a platform on insufflated places (at presence of midges) and at sufficient height (3-4) above a water level if its(her) fast rise is possible(probable). Same it is necessary to consider at desire to stop on island. To choose a place for a camp, persons on duty begin for half an hour before the planned termination(ending) of the working day, examining a place with a shore. It is desirable to use old parking and kostrishcha.

Even following all resulted(brought) advice(councils), it is necessary in order to prevent misunderstanding and false insults to remember, that the aspiration to the best parking will pursue you all tourist life, but an ideal to reach(achieve) it is almost impossible.

The matter is that at a choice of parking [17] absolute laws opened by Felix Kvadriginym operate(work) some. The organic law of parking is severe and simple, as nature laws are severe and simple all: the best parking - in five hundred meters.

There are some more minor laws with which also cannot be neglected. First of them - law "polsedmogo" which means, that the best parking comes across in polsedmogo evenings.

The law has two more conclusions: parking which comes across in the half-eighth, will be little bit worse, and after the half eighth parking disappear at all.

And besides this "law", as well as [17] water hikes resulted(brought) below a sketch, not only a joke, but also the validity, let a little utrirovannaja. In a life happens as so, and etak.

“ It was already repeatedly marked(celebrated), that time from five till half-ninth evening - the present(true) luxury. The sun shines and even heats, but does not bake. A wind - yes that there a wind, a breeze! - the slightest. Water - a mirror show-window of the central department store. The small river is straightened and flows exactly and easy. Botflies already, and still are not present mosquitoes. From shores waves roll dense evening smells. Just now quite you feel pleasure bajdarochnogo a hike!

Therefore houses, up to a hike have agreed still, and after reusable oathes have confirmed already in a hike: ezhevecherne we go from five up to the half-ninth. Earlier than in the half-ninth about a stopping to not mention. To not hint at all! Up to the half-ninth word "parking" in general is not present in our tongue. Is not present - and all!

But the law is the law. And at 18.30 you notice, that the first kayak starts to wag a rudder lasciviously. What go ahead, naturally, have seen parking. And what! Words are not present! To not describe! You when in the winter long evenings discussed the future hike dreamed of such parking.

Meanwhile the captain of the first kayak, preliminary preduprezhdennyj and intimidated by Admiral, severe jerk has calmed down agitation of crew, judiciously holding back, that itself also tests sincere vibration. The kayak resolutely passes(takes place) forward. Fluctuations are suspended! The temptation is overcome! But here potential parking is noticed with the second kayak. Opening is accompanied by a rattle of hitting paddles, the vessel is developed(unwrapped) across current, other flotilla encounters a kayak. The reason of head and feet set is obvious. After not so amicable, but the loud and inspired exclamations spontaneously there is a plot against Admiral who, as a rule, goes on last kayak.

Admiral who has lost vigilance because of unusual beauty of a landscape, has not time to manoeuvre and runs into congestion of vessels.

- What's the matter? - he not so successfully plays misunderstanding of the given moment.

Joyful cries to Admiral explain what miss such parking opinions principals can only completely irresponsible and too high about themselves. Thus, conversation at once begins by way of rigid both irreconciliable contradictions between the chief and subordinates.

- No, you only look(see), there in depth, from water even it is visible, berries redden, mushrooms and crowd, and a source, no, you admire a source - well there yours "Samson"!

Admiral. But to us today still kilometers twelve remains. People (convincingly and insincerely). Tomorrow we shall rise in five and we shall make up!

Admiral (is bitterly dared(laughs bitterly)). You? Will rise? In five? People understands, that business is lost. Admiral gives a command(team):

- Forward!

In an hour appear one for one two parking worse. Captains of kayaks, throwing(stopping) the interested views on Admiral, are silent and continue a way. In the meantime the landscape steadily spoils. First recedes up to horizon, and the forest then disappears. The bush comes to naught. It is tempting flat shores .nachinajut to rise, and at last the small river appears between two tapes of absolutely bare rocks. In the half-ninth visual environment becomes absolutely already ominous. However, the right shore put, but also from water it is visible, that there black bog. On rocks of the left shore not that that kayaks to pull out, at them to the skilled(experienced) climber to look "frosty".

Admiral strong grebkami sends the kayak forward, and all group with grief observes, how in meters in three hundred he fussy sticks that to one shore to another as he sticks in a coastal bog or at the best drives away a loud bass herd of cows which it is not known whence here have undertaken, vaguely pumps a head, sits down in a vessel and mchit further. Without a quarter ten admiral's silhouette precisely appears on a background of enormous cold month, victorious cry is audible: “ Зе-Ñ-мля-I-th! ” The cavalcade slowly and utomlenno approaches(suits) to the place chosen by the heads.

Parking really - anything. Forests, the truth, it is not visible, fuel - too. The nearest scrubs, no, kustiki, - meters for two hundred. But very much, it is a lot of traces of stay of cows, horses, geese and more any unknown persons, but, by concrete attributes, very much greater(big) herbivores.

But to choose it is not necessary. More soon to put tents, to kindle a fire and to weld(cook) something! ”

In bikes tour if the group is provided by tents, bicycles attach near to tent one dense group. The second leans against the first machine(car) so that the back wheel of the second was near to a forward wheel of the first, etc. In inclement weather of the machine(car) it is possible to cover Membranula(film).

For safety bicycles should be locked special latches. It is possible also between risers of luggage carriers or frames of marginal machines(cars) to stretch a chain and to hang up on its(her) extremities(ends) the latch.

If city excursion is stipulated, to spend the night better all the same in a countryside, not reaching up to city. It is possible to be already in city, and then, after acquaintance to places of interest in the morning, to leave it(him), again to spend the night “ on the nature ”.

In motorcycle hikes the place for a lodging for the night is desirable for choosing so. That after a rain it was possible to leave on road without assistance. Hillocks in pine to a forest where normally sandy soil and it is always dry are preferable. It is desirable, that at departure road it is not necessary! Was to overcome clay rise. To have a rest well far from a main line rustling all day and night. It is better to avoid fords how the place on that side was attractive; can pass(take place) a rain at night and will overcome water difficultly in the morning.

In car hikes if the group travels on 4-5 cars, it is possible to stop on a lodging for the night in any place, having established(installed) watch. It is possible to stop near housing, on territories of the roadman, school, militian item(point), fire-engine house. Is better to stop in campings where there is a protection and a series of convenience - the center for cooking, souls, a toilet. In campings there are viewing pits and flushers for cars.

To kindle(heat) a fire, a kerosene stove or a tile it is necessary further from the car so that the wind blew from the machine(car) to fire.

To sight-see city it is better on foot, having left cars on storage.
Works on a camp

Works on a camp should borrow(occupy) minimally possible(probable) time. The more quickly they will be ended, the to more time remains on rest(tour) and on movement, that is actually on a hike. It is not necessary to spare thus time due to quality of works, convenience of rest(tour), reduction of a dream.

On a camp (preparation of fire wood, waters, the equipment(installation) palatok, delution of a fire(shive), kindling of an oven or a kerosene stove, cooking) it is rather desirable to spend weight of work in parallel, that is simultaneously.

As soon as the fire has lighted up, above fire hang up buckets with water. If a camp without a fire, and with ovens or kerosene stoves or buckets at once put casseroles on them.

Each of works on a camp is carried out by participants to whom it is entrusted. Separate works charge normally to those who on them "specialized" at which they turn out better and more quickly. But if any kind of works is more serious(grow heavy) than others it is better to do(make) them by turns, for example preparation of fire wood for a winter lodging for the night at a fire. In lasting many days hikes when conditions are approximately identical, it is better to distribute(allocate) in advance works so that all participants "have passed(have taken place)" through all kinds of works. For example, today two are on duty - kindle(heat) and support(maintain) a fire, work with an oven or kerosene stoves, cook food; tomorrow they prepare fuel ("lumberers"), and the day after tomorrow establish(install) tents ("domostroiteli"). Thus, everyone do(make) everything, are trained in all tourist works, nobody has an occasion to take offence. Naturally, women should not be engaged in serious works, for example shaky, cutting and perenoskoj trees.

At the good organization of work on a camp finish basically by the moment when the supper is ready. For rest(tour) and a dream thus remain enough time.

To distribute(allocate) works on a camp it is necessary at once after arrival on a place or even earlier. The Operating procedure depends on a kind of tourism and concrete conditions, from quantity(amount) of people in group and their experience. In shozhennoj to group the Principal does not have special need to distribute(allocate) works and to control them skilled(experienced) tourists at once see, that it is necessary to make first of all each event.

If on a place of a camp there is not enough dead wood and valezhin more people are prepared with fire wood; if approaches or already it is raining at once put tents.

In ski hikes in bezlesnyh districts first of all prepare snow bricks and blocks(trochleas) for a wind-shelter wall, put tent and build around a wall in view of prospective weather (with navetrennoj the sides or environing her(it) all tent on the maximal height). In winter taiga hikes prime works - preparation of fuel and the equipment(installation) palatok or the equipment of a place for a lodging for the night (arrangement of camp - inspissation of a platform under tent, preparation of a fire and paths for it(him;them) and a toilet, the device of awnings, a flooring, etc.). In water hikes vessels first of all unload and wash them ashore.

In shozhennoj to group all works go without superfluous vanity and as though slowly. Nevertheless breakdown of camp from the moment of a stopping before the termination(ending) all of evening works borrows(occupies) no more than two, and sometimes and one and a half hours that is absolutely good. Same time should borrow(occupy) coagulation of camp in the morning (from rise up to a yield(an exit)). In such group people do not sit without business(affairs) when others work, and search for it(him), helping(assisting) another, works are not ended yet. It is necessary to take for a rule to not rummage in another's backpacks (all the same hardly you will find the necessary thing), and taken from comrade to return to him in arms(hand).

Persons on duty who cook food in the morning (it is desirable the same, that prepared on the eve in the evening), rise for half an hour (or more) before the general(common) rise. Everything, that is necessary for delution of a fire(shive) or kindling of kerosene stoves and an oven (rastopka, fire wood, water, products), is prepared since evening. Fire wood needs to be covered for the night from a rain or dews; water if winter to prepare in the evening and if a source far also in the summer too.

There is a sense to appoint(nominate) persons on duty “ to the given camp ” then both in the evening, and in the morning they know where that lays and as better than to use. To begin watch it is better after a dinner, and to finish - a breakfast.

All participants, except for persons on duty, can be almost collected", and camp basically will curtail(turn) prior to the beginning of a breakfast. When the breakfast is ready, works interrupt all to not detain persons on duty and a yield(an exit) as a whole. It is desirable, that buckets after meal were washed with the last or future persons on duty as at today's on duty affairs and without that it is a lot of.

Leave a camp such that others have wanted to stop here and they would not need to search for other platform, to plant a fire on a fresh place and all anew to equip. Dust burn, the roasted cans dig, pegs from palatok and the remained fire wood combine near a fire. After sweeping a camp necessarily fill in a fire with water or fall asleep land even if the fire is dissolved far from trees and a forest. This rule cannot be broken, for, having broken(disturbed) its(his) time, easily to resolve to itself disturbance and in another.

Outstanding fire in a forest - a criminal offence.

Leaving, examine a camp - whether things are forgotten. Examine a camp of persons on duty or those to that it is entrusted, differently everyone can count upon others.
Lodgings for the night

In the summer spend the night normally in tents or under awnings, it is possible to spend the night at a fire, under a canopy or an awning, on kostrishche, in tent without an oven, in tent with an oven for heating, in tent with kerosene stoves for cooking (in bezlesnyh districts) in the winter.

Each of these ways of a lodging for the night has the advantages and disadvantages.

At a lodging for the night at a fire weight of equipment for a lodging for the night small (an awning, axes, saws, buckets), but works on the device of a winter camp are rather labour-consuming - preparation of thick logs for a fire demands many forces, and the lodging for the night turns out not so convenient and warm.

The lodging for the night in tent with an oven fitted for heating and cooking, gives the best rest(tour), the greatest comfort, but demands special equipment - an oven, which manufacturing not all under force. Preparation of fire wood thus will not borrow(occupy) a lot of time and forces: enough one sushiny average magnitude to provide an oven with fuel for the evening, night and morning.

In bezlesnyh districts a fire to do(make) there is nothing also an oven there is nothing "to feed" too. It can happen not only in not populated tundra, steppe or deserted districts, but also on the contrary, in densety populated places where on shores of scenic rivers, lakes and water basins near conurbations numerous having a rest for a long time have burnt all dry kecks, a dead wood and dry branches of trees (and here and there even alive trees). It is necessary tourists to take in these events with itself marching kerosene stoves ("bumblebee", "tourist") with a stock of gasoline, less often - gas tiles.

On group at 9-11 the person enough two kerosene stoves "bumblebee" and gasoline from rough calculation 1 l per day in the winter both 0,7 l in the summer and in the autumn. If to cook food on kerosene stoves in the big tent, even. In the winter at a frost in tent will be, while kerosene stoves, positive temperature work. In tent allocate(remove) for kerosene stoves a special angle - kitchen(cuisine) under which from above and from sides it is desirable to have a small threshold. In tent where the oven burns or kerosene stoves work, do(make) a hole in the upper part for ventilation, a yield(an exit) of a smoke and water steams. At rastopke, the equipment(installation) and putting off(taking out) of buckets the oven always smokes a little, buckets and casseroles when in them water begins to boil and the nutrition cooks, always stew a little, especially at the taken out caps(covers). Therefore, if to not make a hole in tent it will be smoky, and walls will moisten.

About some designs palatok including greater(big) collective, and ovens for heating and cooking it is told in section about bivachnom equipment.

At using ovens and kerosene stoves it is necessary to keep security measures. The pipe from an oven passes(takes place) through a hole in a roof or a wall of tent. Around of a pipe a cloth of tent replace nonflammable аcбо-or glass cloth on 15-20 see On a pipe outside of tent put on iskrogasitel-дефлектор. In tents from a kapron tissue it is impossible to use ovens: despite of presence of spark arresters the small part of sparks can get on Capronum and burn it(him).

Kerosene stoves and gas tiles need to be adjusted carefully before a hike. On a route their work is watched(kept up) always by one participant, it is good their studied(investigated) and adjusted them before travel. He should learn all others to correct treatment of kerosene stoves and gas tiles.

To kindle(heat) kerosene stoves it is desirable outside of tent or, in marginal events in the winter on "kitchen(cuisine)", for flat.
Word about dnevke

What can be better in a hike dnevki? Dnevka involves any tourist. At everyone the plans and hopes are bound to her. The fisher at last will find application of the tackle, mushroom pickers and jagodniki can satisfy the desires, women will prepare demonstration of orders, will borrow(occupy) in washing, repairing, preparation of exotic, "celebratory" dishes; pathfinders can look for " traces of unprecedented animals ”.

To meet desires of all participants, dnevka should meet some additional demands, except for ordinary demands to parking.

The main thing from them - "zapovednost" dnevki. It is desirable, that the camp has been broken in a place where still “ the leg(foot) of the person ” did not step. This demand is sometimes difficult enough for executing. There Is one: to find the place which has been fenced off from all world by "closed-end" mountains or bogs.

Not less important and such quality dnevki, as originality. The features inherent only in this place which will be remembered for ever Mean: any features of a land forms, a picturesque landscape, high mountain with the "survey" top opening distant distances, cosy small river, pine boron(cutter)...

But, naturally, at all this the greatest impression is left not with the acute moments and not exotic. Not reason, and heart you remember a silent reach of the river near to your camp, solovinuju night, sensitive silence of the fallen asleep forest and the first beams of the sun which in the beginning uncertainly, and then everyone are more safely pulled out because of dense scrubs. It will dream you at the winter nights, heart will fade with it(this) at a word "dnevka", it will call you in a following hike, despite of all administrative, family and other obstacles and circumstances.

Dnevka should be such that it was a pity to you to leave from here that you have left here a part throttle.

Compelled(Forced) dnevki not necessarily should be bad. Let the continuous rain is poured with some days, let snowstorm rages infinitely. But nothing will forbid to you comprehension and considering of the important problems for you. Other free time at you never will be. Besides works in camp under a rain, delution of a fire, for example, will remain fascinating business.

Incidental dnevka can be and zapovednoj, and unique for act of nature(elemental calamity) can force to break you a camp there where and “ the grey wolf will not run, and the black raven will not fly by ”. And memory of her will not be erased.

But already next day after "sitting" this memory will get tone light and lyrical; whether it is necessary to convince, what in process of excision from a place dnevki it will seem more and more attractive and lovely?