Cave Kachi Kalon, CrimeaKachi-Kalon is a medieval cave monastery in Crimea. It is located in the Bakhchsarai area between the villages of Produsele and Bashtanovka on the North Bank of the river Kacha. People use to shelter rock shelters Kaczynski canyon for thousands of years, so to name the date of the Foundation of Kachi-Kalion problematic. Is that more or less distinct settlement appeared here in the 6th century of our era. And at first it was purely secular. Only since the 8th century in Kachi-Kalion begins to grow and develop the monastic complex.
The meaning of the title "Kachi-Kalon" it is not known. It is traditionally translated as "cross ship" (supposedly because of a rock characteristic shape), but sufficient evidence is not.
The backbone of the economy of early Kachi-Kalion was the production of wine. Nomadic herders inhabiting the black sea steppes themselves wine is not produced, but often consumed and were willing to pay for it. And the people of the valley Kachi sought to satisfy such beneficial demand and wine pressed in immense quantities. In the 13th century in the Crimea Tatars came. At first it was temporary raids, but gradually they settled. And 1313 was a critical event - Tatars converted to Islam. The Koran forbids drinking wine. Plummeted sales, eliminated the need for vast vineyards. Many vinodavilni Kachi-Kalion were pereoborudovan for other purposes.
At the time of its greatest prosperity, i.e., in the 15th century, Kachi-Kalion was home to 200 monks (very much). This can be determined by the number of cave cells. Cells were single. In General, the architecture of the monastery stacked on the first floor was vinodavilni-tarapanov, outbuildings, corrals. Accommodations were located above the second up to the fifth floor. Window openings it was not, the glass fragments, archaeologists did not find. Presumably the light penetrated into the cave dwellings through tightened bullish bubble Windows in wooden doors. Stoked not giving smoke charcoal, burning it on a ceramic braziers. The ashes from these braziers centuries were thrown down on the slope. Alkaline ash mixing with the local acidic soil formed very fertile layer, which gave birth to perfectly vineyards. Feral and izmelchai, the monastery grapes still hovering in the bushes on the slopes of the Kachi-Kalion. There were even experiments on crossing it with the modern varieties to develop their resilience filoxera.
In the early 15th century view of the monastery was radically different from the present. Grottoes and caves could not be seen - they were hidden under the numerous wooden buildings and pavement. From these canopies, as with scaffolding work was carried out on gouging the top of the caves and cells. In 1475 the Crimea was conquered by the Turks. The monastery was resisted and was burned and since then had never been recovered in full. Later in the Fourth grotto again began monastic life. Due to the fact that the Turks were driven to Constantpool many residents of the valley, the monastery lost a considerable part of the congregation (and profits) and consequently deteriorated.
The Turks freed the monastery from taxes, satisfied with the doctrine that all power is from God and the idea of non-resistance to evil by violence. But this was of little help weakening of the monastery. Then the monks began to establish ties with the Moscow Kingdom. In the Kachi-Kalion, and Dormition monastery in Bakhchisarai and many other Orthodox monastery Church has received rugu, i.e., assistance from the Treasury. In return, the monks supplied Tsar information first hand about what is happening in the Crimean khanate.
From 1769 to 1774 lasted Russo-Turkish war. At some point in the Crimea was a 30-strong expeditionary force led by Prince Dolgoruky. Under the pressure of circumstances Khan changed political orientation with Pro-Turkish, Pro-Russian. Crimea was declared independent from Turkey. In practice, however, all was not so simple.
In 1778, to undermine the economy of the Crimean khanate, Russia organized resettlement of Christians from the Crimea in the sea of Azov. The fact that in the Crimea taxes were paid only the Gentiles and the loss of the Christians would have turned into the emptiness is following the Khan's Treasury. Was bribed Crimean Metropolitan Ignatius (he belonged to the Constantinople Patriarchate) and he instructed the priests to preach the outcome in the control Russia. The peasants were promised transportation (Suvorov drove carts) and 7 rubles aid per person. Metropolitan has received more than 7,000 rubles. Together with the peasants went from Kachi-Kalyon and monks. For some time the monastery was left unattended and many frescoes in churches and other Christian symbols were destroyed by the Muslims.
The last of the khans dynasty of Girey family was so unpopular among the people (for their European way of life) that end up in 1783 abdicated in favor of Catherine the Second, but this did not save him. During the pilgrimage to Mecca Khan şahin Giray was strangled by the Turks. Tatars, not wanting to live under the rule of the Orthodox Queen, ran from the Crimea to the Ottoman Turks. Christians, as you remember, was evicted earlier. Crimea became depopulated. Then issued a decree to settle empty lands retired soldiers and widows. After the decree of the Synod about the restoration of the sacred places in the Kachi-Kalion acted tiny Anastasievskaya Kin - only 4 monk, under the assumption monastery in Bakhchisarai.
When it was the Soviet regime, the assumption and Cosmo-Demianski monasteries, praying for victory Wrangel, were declared enemies of the people and exiled to Solovki. And about Anastasievskuyu monastery somehow forgot. Realized only in 1932 suddenly find under the nose of living of the monks. Urgently convened meeting of workers of the farm and unanimously voted for the expulsion of the monks. The monastery was closed, the stone structure was dismantled, the material was taken to the barns. And the land was transferred Bakhchisaray Museum-reserve. Thus began the fourth life of Kachi-Kalon - life of the Museum object.
Source of St. Anastasia.
Anastasia lived in Ancient Rome at the end of the 3rd century ad. She was a rich Christian. Together with her maid, dressed in beggar's rags, walked through the dungeons, where they were made Christians, and they assisted - fed, healed and redeemed at will. He died in the year 304. Was later canonized as a Saint by the entitled (isbasically from prison). It is believed that Anastasia is able to reduce not only real the chains of the prisoners and slaves, but also ties unhappy marriage and the bonds of severe pregnancy, i.e., helps safely give birth. Therefore, in the 18th century, near the spring Anastasia was a bed, which came to bear the local women.
With long years in the Fourth grotto, beneath the source grew wild cherry. The tree also led a monastic life - flowered every year, but not fruited. Now the old dried cherries and Abbot of the monastery, father Dorotheus, ordered to sit in the grotto two seedling cherries. They began. Over the years, the debit spring Anastasia has decreased significantly below the main bowl there is no stream, only barely damp earth. But in his time there was a large font and from the spring water went into the baptismal font, where baths were willing to be healed. Now due to the influx of pilgrims, tourists and other refreshment in the Holy water, and also due to the drying up of the spring, the water in the bowl has become unfit for drinking or for bathing.
A significant part of this text is a paraphrase of the author's excursions archaeologist Alexei Ivanovich Ivanov, heard us on August 22, 2009. Cyril Jasko.