The Choice of a storm jacketto you any bad weather if you will put on as follows will be not really terrible. The first layer - special underwear which will adjust(regulate) tap(removal) of a moisture from a body, leaving a skin dry. The second layer - a heater which will save precious heat. Well and to the third layer of the demand not less serious - he should protect you from external nuisances - a wind and deposits, and also to promote conservation of heat and a condensate drain. To cope with such problems(tasks), the outer clothing - a jacket and trousers - should be functional and should be executed from a technological tissue. And though functionality costs(stands) on the first place, appearance of these clothes too is important, in fact meet on clothes...
The majority of producers of clothes outdoor is used with membranous tissues for manufacture of storm clothes. Below we shall describe a principle of work, the characteristic of various membranes and difference in their structures(frames), and for the beginning we shall note, that membranous tissues happen two types: microporous and tkanye. Purpose(appointment) at them one - to spend outside of vaporization from a body (is more exact, from termosloja) and to not spend deposits from the outside, and the structure(frame) and a principle of action are excellent(different). We shall understand, that is that.
The vivid example of microporous membranes are the well-known membranes Gore-Tex made by the company W.LGore& Associates, Inc. For the first time such membrane has been presented(introduced) in the market more 25 years ago and since then remains to one of the best.
The in itself membrane is microporous Membranula(film), where on square inch (2,5x2,5 sm) is necessary the order of 9 billion pores, each of which in 20000 times is less, than a drop of water, and in 700 times more, than a molecule of a steam. Hence, the steam (from a body) can pass(take place) vaporizations through a membrane free, as provides. And here for an external moisture which drops gets on clothes, the membrane is an obex: the size of a cell is less, than the size of a molecule of water, and a drop does not pass(take place).
TONGUE OF DIGITS
The mechanism described above is fair for all microporous membranes. However ' all of them with these primary goals consult variously: variously, and water from the outside do not pass(miss) too variously. Moreover, the concept is-is conditional, do not pass(miss) for the time being, but under strong pressure (a stream of water falling continuously) the drop all the same passes(takes place), and not one.
For comparison of quality of membranes tests as a result of which two important characteristics receive are spent. The first - water resistance (or moisture resistance), the second - penetrability of water steams.
Water resistance as follows from the name, is ability of a membrane to resist to penetration of a moisture from the outside - to a rain, a snow, etc. she Is measured in millimeters (mm) of a water column.
The maximal water resistance membrane Trans Active (not a microporous membrane, and woven) possesses. She maintains up to 78 m water stop-6а. Such it is necessary only in marginal events - at a continuous duty under a torrential rain. Clothes with such membrane let out(release) in the limited quantities(amounts), in fact in most cases it is quite enough smaller parameter.
Excellent(Different) water resistance membranes Gore-Tex - up to 45 m of a water column possess.
In the majority an event there are enough membranes with a parameter of a water column of 10-12 m. For comparison we shall tell, that the city rain frames pressure in 5-8 m of a water column.
Unpretentious membranes with water resistance 2 - 3 m of a water column will allow you to enjoy a life at a fog or a light(mild) drizzling rain, however is short - no more than 3-4 hours.
Let's note also, that water resistance is bound with iznosoustojchivostju: the above water resistance, the above and iznosoustojchivost a membranous material.
Water Vapor Permeability - characterizes abilities and it is translated as, or, (we shall remind, that the microporous membrane deduces(removes) vaporous sweat, instead of wet).
Essentially excellent(different) from each other methods of definition two.
The more, the better
The first method - MVTR - consists in immediate definition of quantity(amount) of the water steams which are passing(are taking place) through unit of volume for a time unit (g/¬ó. M/24 of hour). The above a parameter, the vaporizations the membrane is better allocates(removes).
Maksimapnyj membranes Gore-Tex show result, as a rule, them makes from 12000 up to 15000 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours.
It is necessary to concern to the big parameter of other producers cautiously. The matter is that parameters of experiment can differ, for example, experiences at different temperatures yield different results. Moreover, experiment is more or less exact approach(approximation) the validity. For example, in many techniques on testing a membrane it is supposed, that she adjoins to a vaporizing surface, and in fact in dejstvitepnosti it at all so.
The it is less, the better
The second method - RET (Resistant Evaporate Textile) - measures ability of a tissue to interfere with a condensate drain, formed on a body (deduced(removed) on a surface of inner layers) during playing sports. Units of measure coincide with the name of a method. Thus, the more tissue resists to a condensate drain, that she is worse. So at Gore-Tex it is measured in a range 2,5-5 ret, and at an anonymous membrane of the unknown producer can make and 70 ret. Difference is obvious.
Is always pleasantly. But improvement of this characteristic inevitably leads to rising the price. Jackets with fine Gore-Tex - a thing costing(standing) but afford it(her) can far not all. Moreover, not she is necessary to all.
If it is less 2000 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours such membrane does not suit anywhere. Even for walks and active pastime it is required at least nearby 4000 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours. For playing sports, for example, for intense run or games - 5000-8000 g/¬ó. The m. With rising intensity of a load a parameter should raise(increase). Well and for the climbers making complex(difficult) ascentions in extreme conditions, the parameter exceeds 10000 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours.
AND WATER RESISTANCE-
ZTO ALWAYS THE COMPROMISE
It is necessary to note, that two important characteristics of a membrane - and water resistance-are bound among themselves. The better, the moisture resistance, and on the contrary, that is these characteristics inverse there is less. Raspingly speaking that left more pair, it is necessary to do(make) pores more but then also water will lighter get inside.
Therefore at a choice of outer clothing it is necessary to place priorities - precisely to understand, for what these clothes are necessary to you.
FRIABILITY OF THE MEMBRANE
The microporous membrane - a design rather fragile(brittle), therefore in itself practically is not used. As a rule, she is rolled on other tissues thermal by.
If the additional tissue is only from the external side such membranous material is called two-layer. In that case at tailoring the two-layer membranous tissue shelters on the other hand (the inner side of a jacket) freely hanging grid that allows to avoid mechanical damages.
Trizonal membranous material - together three layers: an external tissue, a membrane, an inner tissue.
Externally both two-layer, and trizonal membranes look(appear) as one layer of a tissue.
NOT MICROPOROUS MEMBRANES
Not microporous (or tkanye) membranes - group small. Are most known SympaTex, Dermizax, TransActive. They differ from microporous membranes structure(frame) and a principle of work though problems(tasks) before them cost(stand) the same. '
The structure(frame) tkanyh membranes uproshchenno can be presented(introduced) so: an inner layer hydrophylic elements which grasp molecules of a water steam and make the smallest drops of water, an external layer - hydrophobic elements () which, not imbibing, deduce(remove) an aeriform(a gaseous) steam outside.
It is necessary to note, that membrane Trans Active is capable to allocate(remove) outside not only a steam, but also a liquid moisture. On abilities she is flush with others tkanymi membranes.
Tkanye membranes stronger. First, they do not reduce characteristics at a stretching, and their this propert is actual for zones of the raised(increased) load of-elbows, brachiums, knees. And, secondly, they do not demand special leaving(care): can be erased in an ordinary regimen without special agents. And though absence of pores raises(increases) service life of such products (in microporous membranous jackets of a pore are salted down, hammered by washing agents and can even be torn), it influences and on characteristics - tkanye membranous materials are worse.
Conditionally membranes share so: Gore-Tex and all the others. Separation, certainly, rasping, but fair. Membranes Gore-Tex are recognized by the best, other producers frame analogues in attempt to approach quality to the conventional standard.
Membranous materials Gore-Tex apply not only by manufacture of clothes, but also by manufacture of footwear and gloves.
There is a flock of modifications, which basic difference - in the sizes of micropores. The following are most widespread: Gore-Tex Classic - oldest of available membranes, Gore-Tex XCR new generation of membranous materials which properts are enlarged by 25 %, Gore-Tex Light - the membrane nakatana on a lining and is not bound to an external tissue. Gore-Tex 2-liner - the membrane is not bound to a vernal tissue, lined. Last variant is used in fashionable daily and sportswear. For serious extreme clothes it is used triad or double Gore-Tex.
Membranes Gore-Tex - the most dear(expensive). Cost of clothes with Gore Those normally begins from 0 for a jacket (if to not take in treating sale of collections of the last seasons where it is possible to buy(purchase) and is cheaper). But even if a certain producer of clothes outdoor in a state to pay greater(big) money and to use this membrane in the clothes, it(this) insufficiently. It is necessary to be reliable still for company Gore, in fact she it is far not to everyone authorizes to sew clothes from the membranous materials, demanding much to technologies of production, to a level and a brand. The list of license producers can be found on a site of the company.
... AND ALL THE OTHERS
What it is necessary to do(make) by that who lets out(releases) clothes of an average price level? Or that who cannot receive (or does not want) the permission to tailoring from Gore-Tex?
It is necessary to develop own membranes, trying to reach(achieve) qualities and the same characteristics which show Gore-Tex. At one producers rather competitive analogues, at others - variants with the inferior characteristics turn out.
Practically all names of firm development include the termination(ending) though behind it(this) membranous materials can disappear not, and ordinary tissues with water-repellent impregnation.
Let's list the most known firm development of producers of clothes outdoor:
Bask (Russia) - Sofitex (water resistance-2 m of a water column, - 3500 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours;
Campus (Poland) - Vaportex (water resistance - 3 - 11 m, - up to 17000 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours);
Eider (France) - Defender (water resistance - 20 m of a water column);
Jack Wolfskin (Germany) - Teharoge (water resistance - 10 m, - 6000 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours);
Lowe Alpine (England) - Triple Point Ceramic (water resistance - 17 m, 10000 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours);
Marmot (USA) - MemBrain (water resistance - 20 m of a water column);
Red Fox (Russia) - Super Bretex (water resistance-8м a water column, - 3500 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours) and Aquatex (10 m and 3500 g/¬ó. M for 24 hours accordingly).
It is far not the full list, we have listed only those producers which models are presented(introduced) in our years(summer) catalogue of outer clothing.
EASIER, THAN THE MEMBRANE
Are more simple in manufacture and, accordingly, tissues with impregnation, a little bit more difficultly and more expensively a tissue with evaporation are cheap.
Tissues with impregnation for the time being. First they really protect from a wind, and also from deposits - water, getting on a surface, gathers in drops and rolls down(slides) from clothes, but eventually their properts worsen. Impregnation sostiryvaetsja also wears out. It is possible to process repeatedly, certainly, a tissue water-repellent contents, but safeguards, that you have received original effect, no.
As to abilities they are low. Impregnation frames Membranula(film) which, protecting from a wind and an external moisture, interferes with a conclusion inner - vaporizations from a body on a surface of a tissue.
Tissues with evaporation show the best water-repellent properts in comparison with tissues with impregnation. Moreover, they it is much better, in fact napyljaemoe the substance has micropores through which can pass(take place) steams(pairs) of sweat. It is necessary to note, that tissues with evaporation under characteristics are approached to microporous membranes that raises(increases) their cost in comparison with tissues with impregnation. Evaporation practically does not lose efficiency eventually.
Some producers of tissues with evaporation and impregnation too include the termination(ending) <-tex>, but the fact remains the fact: they concede on quality and microporous, and tkanym to membranes.
NOVELTIES IN THE WORLD OF HEATERS
As we already spoke, the second layer in laminated(multilayer) system of clothes is a heater: flis, in winter
Jackets - down or its(his) synthetic analogues. Here we would like to pay attention to two rather new development.
Heater Outlast is so-called fazoperehodnyj a heater the Microcapsules entering into its(his) contents, are capable to change the phase state depending on temperature of your body: so, when you are active, they heat, turning to a liquid, and accumulate heat, and at depression of physical activity pass in a hard state and to you it warmly give. However we shall note, that a problem(task) of heater Outlast - redistribution of heat, and not only at employment(occupations) with a non-uniform load (when the periods of hyperactivity(superactivity) alternate with expectation), and and redistribution of heat between physiologically good and badly warmed zones. This propert causes utilization Outlast as heater in toes(socks) and gloves (and also in termobele) where he passes heat from good and easily warmed up zones, palms or a foot, to fingers. Application Outlast allows to reduce thickness of clothes, providing greater(big) freedom of movements. Limitation on utilization of this heater - the high price for products with Outlast.
Other novelty - an air lining from company Gore, is called she Gore Advantage Lining. It is a lining arranged as an inflatable waistcoat, consists of the flock, bound among themselves. If necessary these(it) it is possible to fill with air through a special nipple in a collar of a jacket. Zakachannyj in a cavity on a chest and a back air frames the air interlayer providing thermal insulation. Advantage of such way of warming is obvious - you can adjust(regulate) a degree termoizoljatsii independently, not enlarging weight of clothes on yourselves and in a backpack.
The upper storm clothes - a thing rather important. She should be light(mild), convenient and functional.
The extreme clothes should be executed from a membranous material. All seams and trade marks should be glued from the interior of special by a tape, otherwise the clothes can bring you during the most improper moment and then high characteristics of a membrane will be brought to nothing.
At least all lightnings should be protected by valves, the central lightning of a jacket - to two. It is better, if lightnings water-resisting(waterproof). Fabric brelki on lightnings - the additional convenience allowing rasstegivat/to clasp(button) of them, not taking out gloves.
The great value has quantity(amount) of pockets (them should be enough for housing necessary things) and their locating - they should be readily available. Important and presence of inner pockets where it is possible to clean(remove) the important things, for example, documents or phone, having protected them from namokanija. The best variant for valuable things - an inner pocket with external access.
In axillary area ventilating valves which provide a comfortable state when intensity of a load is replaced are stipulated - at active actions of a lightning it is possible to unbutton and.
Contact zones - shoulders, elbows - should be strengthened by stronger materials that raises(increases) iznosoustojchivost clothes.
Should be available utjazhki on a bottom of a jacket and on waists, and also an opportunity of resetting of a collar that will allow to adjust a jacket on a figure. Sleeves on elastics and fasteners Velcro (lipuchki) or even elastic inner gloves allow to avoid hit of a snow, drops of a rain and zaduvanija a wind in sleeves.
The hood should be adjusted(regulated) on volume by means of couplers so that to provide dense landing(planting), providing an opportunity of putting on from above on a helmet. Presence of a visor (is unbent) welcomed, in fact he partly protects he can uoiratsja in a collar, can come unfastened In some models meets podshlemnik from lycra. We hope, that our information will help(assist) you with a choice of clothes which will allow you to feel comfortably in any hike and in any weather environment.
(stattja z to magazine " All for sports and rest(tour) ", ³12 2003)