AutoclavesWith dropping temperature of air, with rise on height and decrease of atmospheric pressure the boiling point of water decreases. Process of cooking thus is tightened(delayed), spent more than fuel, quality of peep worsens.
Hermetically closed casseroles-pressure cookers, that is autoclaves, help(assist) with these events to mountain tourists, to skiers, climbers to avoid all these nuisances. In tundra and mountain hikes, on sites above a forest boundary application of pressure-cookers allows to frame the raised(increased) pressure and by that more a heat of water due to what the charge of gasoline and a preparation time of peep decreases.
The autoclave consists of the case-capacity, airproofly closed Cap(Cover) with inspissation, the locking device of a cap(cover), a safety valve, the gate for alignment of inner and atmospheric pressure, the thermometer or an aerotonometer.
Industrial(Untrimmed) pressure-cookers basically can be used as autoclaves, but they are small on volume and serious. Self-made autoclaves are more suitable for a hike, weigh less, have greater volume, it is more convenient at perenoske. It is desirable to apply special alimentary aluminium alloys To manufacturing autoclaves.
For a boiling point of water 110 at height about 3000 m above sea level it is necessary to frame in a pressure-cooker pressure about 500 mm hg (0,67 kg/sm2). Pressure of operation of a safety valve should be, hence, no more than 0,75 kg/sm2. Proceeding from necessity of minimally double safety factor the test overpressure should be in this case, hence, 1,5 kg/sm2.
Industrial(Untrimmed) aluminium casseroles can be applied to manufacturing the pressure-cookers calculated on an overpressure of 0,2-0,3 kg/sm2. Therefore pressure of operation of a safety valve should be peer 0,3-0,35 kg/sm2.
Autoclaves can be with an external, coaptation cap(cover) or with inner, self-coaptation. Autoclaves with an inner cap(cover) at failure of a safety valve can be deformed or blasted.
More simple and the most widespread long time among tourists autoclaves with an external cap(cover) were made on the basis of an aluminium economic can with the "airproof" cap(cover) fitted for them. Disadvantages of these autoclaves were the small area of a bottom(fundus) and a serious cap(cover).
The example of such autoclave is resulted(brought) on fig. 59. On a flapper of a five-liter can the collar fastens couples-рехсскционный. Between it(him) sektsijami on connecting screws establish(install) pumped-screws with nuts-барашками which press a cap(cover) and germetizirujut an autoclave. The collar can be made(produced) of an aluminium strip thickness in 2 mm. Thickness of an aluminium cap(cover) should be not less than mm with a lining from alimentary rubber.
Autoclaves with an inner cap(cover) are less hazardous in circulation as they cannot be opened, not having made even inner pressure with atmospheric. It excludes emission of a steam, and sometimes and contents at opening a superheated autoclave.
The autoclave with the welded case of the oval form and an inner cap(cover) is shown on fig. 60. The safety valve is established(installed) on a detachable cover of an autoclave. The union having sideways a hole in diameter of 1,5-2 mm, enables to level inner and atmospheric pressure. At sealing on the union navorachivaetsja a cap. Teploizoljatsionnaja the handle facilitates opening a hot autoclave. For perenoski and suspension the handle from a steel wire serves. Steel details of an autoclave are desirable for having with an anticorrosive covering. To measure pressure it is possible by means of a car small-sized aerotonometer.
At designing an autoclave it is necessary to keep conditions of safety especially strictly. Insufficient durability and poor-quality manufacturing can lead to destruction of an autoclave because of the raised(increased) inner pressure with hazardous consequences (serious combustions). The ready autoclave needs to be checked up on as much as possible admissible overpressure and reliability of the control device (an aerotonometer or the thermometer) and a safety valve. Applied at manufacturing an autoclave materials should be nontoxic and korrozionnostojkimi.
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Fig. 60. An autoclave with the welded case and an inner cap(cover).
1. Teploizoljatsionnaja handles. 2. Screw M10. 3. The Nut-барашек. 4. A channel-latch. 5. The Safety valve. 6. Шmyцep waste interception of pressure. 7. A rubber strip. 8. A flange of a cap(cover). 9. The case. 10. A cap(cover). II. An aerotonometer. I, and, II-length, width and height of the case of an autoclave, a h-level of filling (I. " 270-320 mm. U = I5O-200 mm, H-130-170мм, h-100-150 mm; volume V-10,0 l, useful volume Уn 4,0-8,3.
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Fig. 61. An autoclave from two aluminium casseroles:
With ocurrence of one in another (1), with the welded ring of intensifying (2), with privarivamiem end-to-end (3); a cap(cover); a cap(cover) in the case.
Autoclave of two aluminium casseroles do(make), having cut off them on a line of rivets or below. In day(bottom;fundus) of one of them do(make) an oval hole under the form and the size of a cap(cover). From the inside to vyrezu weld a ring of intensifying, then casseroles weld (fig. 61). The cap(cover) can be used from an industrial(a untrimmed) pressure-cooker, having adjusted a safety valve on smaller pressure.
The self-made cap(cover) (fig. 61,) consists of two oval plates 1 and 2, a bolt 3, a rubber strip 4, a safety valve 5 and an aerotonometer 6. The cap(cover) nestles a nut-барашком 7 by means of a fancy(figured) plate 9 on a ring of intensifying 8. The safety valve consists of the case konusnoj forms 10 with a ring 11 and the coaptation spring 12 adjusted on pressure of operation of the valve.
Before departure a route the autoclave needs to be checked up on an overpressure. Test is more safe for spending in the hydraulic way with endurance(quotation), but not less than 10 minutes. To open an autoclave it is possible only after alignment of inner and atmospheric pressure. To transfer(carry) and transport an autoclave it is necessary in a cover, preserving from impacts and damages.
One of ways of cooking in an autoclave: to finish water to boiling in an open autoclave, to put in pawn products and zagermetizirovat an autoclave, to sustain on one or two kerosene stoves "Bumblebee" of 2-3 minutes or more, being guided on normal pressure. The autoclave taken out from kerosene stoves to cover for 15-20 minutes thermal insulation (shtormovka, a sponge, a sleeping bag). Before opening of a cap(cover) cautiously to pit an overpressure. The nutrition welded(cooked) in an autoclave on evening and covered by a down jacket, remains warm till the morning.
During cooking it is possible to put on an autoclave teploizoljatsionnyj a cap from a nonflammable tissue or to cover with its(his) chunk of such material.